Post List

  • February 15, 2017
  • 07:02 AM
  • 219 views

Tell it to the judge 

by Doug Keene in The Jury Room

Anyone who has been in court more than a few times, has likely heard a judge “rehabilitate” a potential juror who has expressed bias by asking the juror if they will, in judging “this case”, be “fair, impartial and unbiased”. Why yes, your Honor (say almost all of them). Mykol Hamilton and Kate Zephyrhawke, researchers, […]... Read more »

Charles G. Lord, Lee Ross, & Mark R. Lepper. (1979) Biased Assimilation and Attitude Polarization: The Effects of Prior Theories on Subsequently Considered Evidence. Journal  of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(11), 2098-2109. info:/

Lord CG, Lepper MR, & Preston E. (1984) Considering the opposite: a corrective strategy for social judgment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47(6), 1231-43. PMID: 6527215  

  • February 15, 2017
  • 04:30 AM
  • 246 views

"Androgens were not associated with autistic traits at 12 months of age"

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

EARLI - the Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation study - has been mentioned on this blog before (see here) with the aim of the initiative to "examine possible environmental risk factors for autism and study whether there is any interplay between environmental factors and genetic susceptibility."In this post I'm bringing the paper by Bo Park and colleagues [1] (open-access) to your attention and the observation(s) that umbilical cord blood levels of testosterone and other relate........ Read more »

Park, B., Lee, B., Burstyn, I., Tabb, L., Keelan, J., Whitehouse, A., Croen, L., Fallin, M., Hertz-Picciotto, I., Montgomery, O.... (2017) Umbilical cord blood androgen levels and ASD-related phenotypes at 12 and 36 months in an enriched risk cohort study. Molecular Autism, 8(1). DOI: 10.1186/s13229-017-0118-z  

  • February 15, 2017
  • 04:30 AM
  • 196 views

Electrical Stim Treatments Improve Patients with Low Back Pain

by Nicole Cattano in Sports Medicine Research (SMR): In the Lab & In the Field

Various electrical stimulation treatments over the course of 3 weeks resulted in improved low back pain. Interferential stimulation seemed to have the best outcomes in patients with low back disc degeneration. ... Read more »

Rajfur, J., Pasternok, M., Rajfur, K., Walewicz, K., Fras, B., Bolach, B., Dymarek, R., Rosinczuk, J., Halski, T., & Taradaj, J. (2017) Efficacy of Selected Electrical Therapies on Chronic Low Back Pain: A Comparative Clinical Pilot Study. Medical Science Monitor, 85-100. DOI: 10.12659/MSM.899461  

  • February 14, 2017
  • 12:13 PM
  • 301 views

The Complexities of “The Love Hormone”

by Miss Behavior in The Scorpion and the Frog

New York street art. Photo inWikimedia Commons posted by Pedroalmovar.Oxytocin, commonly known as “the love hormone”, is a small chemical that is produced in the brain of mammals, but can both act as a neurotransmitter and enter the blood stream and act as a hormone. It has long been heralded for its role in both maternal and romantic love, but more recent research is showing us just how complicated the physiology of love can be.Oxytocin is released in mammalian mothers after birth. It promo........ Read more »

Shamay-Tsoory SG, & Abu-Akel A. (2016) The Social Salience Hypothesis of Oxytocin. Biological psychiatry, 79(3), 194-202. PMID: 26321019  

  • February 14, 2017
  • 07:02 AM
  • 263 views

Large-scale simulations of Langmuir Wave Distributions Induced by Electron Beams by H. Reid and E. Kontar

by CESRA in Solar Radio Science

Langmuir waves that generate type III radio bursts are excited by high-energy electron beams streaming out from the corona through interplanetary space. Despite a smooth temporal distribution of electrons, the Langmuir waves are measured to occur in discrete clumps, commonly attributed to the turbulent nature of the solar wind electron density (e.g. Smith and Sime 1979, Melrose et al 1986). But how do fluctuations in the background plasma shape the [...]... Read more »

  • February 14, 2017
  • 06:15 AM
  • 204 views

Amphioctopus Marginatus: The Octopus That Pretends to Be a Coconut

by beredim in Strange Animals



Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Cephalopoda
Order: Octopoda
Family: Octopodidae
Genus: Amphioctopus
Species: Amphioctopus  marginatus
Conservation Status: Not yet assessed
Common Name: Coconut octopus, Veined octopus

Meet Amphioctopus marginatus a medium-sized octopus found in the tropical waters of the western Pacific Ocean The species is best known as the "coconut octopus" ... Read more »

Finn JK, Tregenza T, Norman MD. (2009) Defensive tool use in a coconut-carrying octopus. . Curr. Biol, 19(23). info:/10.1016/j.cub.2009.10.052

  • February 14, 2017
  • 03:27 AM
  • 251 views

Relative age and ADHD medication

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"Youngest children in class 'more likely to be given ADHD drugs'" went the NHS Choices headline that led me to the short report produced by Martin Whitely and colleagues [1] (open-access).ADHD - attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder - is something of interest to this blog; not least the idea that relative age (age relative to peers in the same school year group) might be an important variable when it comes to at least some diagnoses of the condition (see here).The Whitely paper draws on ........ Read more »

Martin Whitely, Leanne Lester, John Phillimore, & Suzanne Robinson. (2017) Influence of birth month on the probability of Western Australian children being treated for ADHD. The Medical Journal of Australia. info:/

  • February 13, 2017
  • 08:09 AM
  • 230 views

What is the possible effect of clown interaction on vital signs and nonverbal communication of hospitalized children?

by SciELO in SciELO in Perspective | Press Releases

Researchers at the Faculdade de Medicina de Jundiaí [Jundiaí School of Medicine], in the city of Jundiaí (State of São Paulo, Brazil) and Universidade Guarulhos [Guarulhos University], in the city of Guarulhos (State of São Paulo, Brazil), published a study that shows the positive and beneficial effects of the interaction of hospitalized children with clowns using as indicators nonverbal communication and vital signs of these children. … Read More →... Read more »

Alcântara, P., Wogel, A., Rossi, M., Neves, I., Sabates, A., & Puggina, A. (2016) Effect of interaction with clowns on vital signs and non-verbal communication of hospitalized children. Revista Paulista de Pediatria (English Edition), 34(4), 432-438. DOI: 10.1016/j.rppede.2016.02.011  

  • February 13, 2017
  • 07:02 AM
  • 212 views

Simple Jury Persuasion: The “bad is black” effect 

by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room

It is hard to believe that more than two decades have passed since the controversial Time magazine cover featuring OJ Simpson with his skin intentionally darkened was distributed. It was published in 1994 and people were so upset that the magazine’s managing editor issued a public apology for publishing the cover photo. Today, we are […]... Read more »

Alter, A., Stern, C., Granot, Y., & Balcetis, E. (2016) The “Bad Is Black” Effect. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 42(12), 1653-1665. DOI: 10.1177/0146167216669123  

  • February 13, 2017
  • 04:30 AM
  • 206 views

Blood Test Could Help Provide Information on Prolonged Concussion Recovery

by Jane McDevitt in Sports Medicine Research (SMR): In the Lab & In the Field

Elevated plasma tau concentrations within 6 hours of sport-related concussion was associated with prolonged return to play.... Read more »

Gill, J., Merchant-Borna, K., Jeromin, A., Livingston, W., & Bazarian, J. (2017) Acute plasma tau relates to prolonged return to play after concussion. Neurology, 88(6), 595-602. DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000003587  

  • February 13, 2017
  • 04:28 AM
  • 262 views

Depression, SMILES and Modified Mediterranean diet (advice)

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

SMILES in the title of this post refers to the SMILES trial - Supporting the Modification of lifestyle In Lowered Emotional States - and results recently published by Felice Jacka and colleagues [1] (open-access) pertinent to the idea that "dietary improvement" might be something to consider when a diagnosis of major depressive episode (MDE) is received.Having previously published their study protocol [2], researchers set about looking at whether under "single blind, randomised controlled" ........ Read more »

Jacka, F., O’Neil, A., Opie, R., Itsiopoulos, C., Cotton, S., Mohebbi, M., Castle, D., Dash, S., Mihalopoulos, C., Chatterton, M.... (2017) A randomised controlled trial of dietary improvement for adults with major depression (the ‘SMILES’ trial). BMC Medicine, 15(1). DOI: 10.1186/s12916-017-0791-y  

  • February 12, 2017
  • 11:10 AM
  • 260 views

More than Meets the Eye

by Aurametrix team in Aurametrix Blog

Eyeglasses are almost as old as the civilization itself. They have not changed much since Benjamin Franklin's bifocals in the 18th century. Nor were they made obsolete by laser surgery and contacts. Still, eyeglass technology leaves much to be desired. But new technologies are unfolding before our eyes. ... Read more »

Gudlavalleti VS, Allagh KP, & Gudlavalleti AS. (2014) Self-adjustable glasses in the developing world. Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.), 405-13. PMID: 24570581  

Hasan N, Banerjee A, Kim H, & Mastrangelo CH. (2017) Tunable-focus lens for adaptive eyeglasses. Optics express, 25(2), 1221-1233. PMID: 28158006  

  • February 11, 2017
  • 04:43 AM
  • 249 views

Pregnancy exposure to SSRIs and offspring autism risk: debate continues

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"It remains unclear whether the association between first trimester SSRI [selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor] exposure and child autism that was present in the case-control studies even after adjustment for MMI [maternal mental illness] is a true association or a product of residual confounding."So said the results of the systematic review and meta-analysis undertaken by Hilary Brown and colleagues [1] looking at a potentially important association between pregnancy use of a class ........ Read more »

  • February 10, 2017
  • 12:15 PM
  • 215 views

Scientific reliability and the role of theory

by Multiple Authors in EPPI-Centre blog

The replication crisis, publication bias, p-hacking, harking, bad incentives, undesirable pressures and probably other factors all contribute to diminish the trustworthiness of published research, with obvious implications for research synthesis. Sergio Graziosi asks whether demanding simple theoretical clarity might be part of the solution.
... Read more »

Kerr NL. (1998) HARKing: hypothesizing after the results are known. Personality and social psychology review : an official journal of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc, 2(3), 196-217. PMID: 15647155  

Head ML, Holman L, Lanfear R, Kahn AT, & Jennions MD. (2015) The extent and consequences of p-hacking in science. PLoS biology, 13(3). PMID: 25768323  

Munafò, M., Nosek, B., Bishop, D., Button, K., Chambers, C., Percie du Sert, N., Simonsohn, U., Wagenmakers, E., Ware, J., & Ioannidis, J. (2017) A manifesto for reproducible science. Nature Human Behaviour, 1(1), 21. DOI: 10.1038/s41562-016-0021  

  • February 10, 2017
  • 07:19 AM
  • 200 views

BHD in patients undergoing chest CT and characteristics of BHD in Korea.

by Joana Guedes in BHD Research Blog

To date, there have been no prospective studies attempting to diagnose BHD syndrome or literature reviews on BHD in Korea. Park et al. (2017) address this in their new study that aims to detect BHD prospectively in patients undergoing chest computed tomography (CT) scans and to classify the characteristics of BHD in Korea.... Read more »

  • February 10, 2017
  • 07:02 AM
  • 199 views

Teaching AI to be prejudiced, the “bamboo ceiling”,  overcoming unconscious bias, snap judgments and racial fears

by Doug Keene in The Jury Room

Time for another one of those combination posts on things much too good to overlook. This time we are almost all about various sorts of bias to keep you up to speed on the different ways we make (and teach) biased judgments. Bias is taught—even to artificial intelligence We hear a lot about how parents […]... Read more »

Azevedo, R., Garfinkel, S., Critchley, H., & Tsakiris, M. (2017) Cardiac afferent activity modulates the expression of racial stereotypes. Nature Communications, 13854. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13854  

  • February 10, 2017
  • 05:00 AM
  • 194 views

Friday Fellow: Paraná pine

by Piter Boll in Earthling Nature

by Piter Kehoma Boll As the first conifer Friday Fellow, I decided to choose one of my beloved ones, the Paraná pine, Araucaria angustifolia, also known as Brazilian pine or candelabra tree. The Paraná pine can reach up to 50 m … Continue reading →... Read more »

  • February 10, 2017
  • 03:27 AM
  • 210 views

A few-foods diet for ADHD: a systematic review of meta-analyses of double-blind, placebo-controlled trials

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"... the effect sizes of a few-foods diet are medium to large, justifying implementation of a diagnostic FFD [few-foods diet] in subgroups of children with ADHD [attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder], thus offering innovative treatment opportunities for ADHD."So said the "Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses of Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trials" published by Lidy Pelsser and colleagues [1] (open-access available here) looking at various dietary interventions that have ........ Read more »

  • February 9, 2017
  • 03:01 AM
  • 232 views

On dietary and nutritional therapies for ME/CFS

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

ME/CFS in case you don't already know refers to Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and, according to the findings reported by Nadia Campagnolo and colleagues [1], is in need of quite a bit more scientific investigation when it comes to the application of dietary changes and nutritional supplements to potentially alter the course of the condition(s).Surveying the peer-reviewed literature "from 1994 to May 2016" the authors looked for peer-reviewed studies where "CFS/ME........ Read more »

Campagnolo N, Johnston S, Collatz A, Staines D, & Marshall-Gradisnik S. (2017) Dietary and nutrition interventions for the therapeutic treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: a systematic review. Journal of human nutrition and dietetics : the official journal of the British Dietetic Association. PMID: 28111818  

  • February 8, 2017
  • 02:05 PM
  • 246 views

Assessment of reproducibility in research results leads to more questions than answers

by SciELO in SciELO in Perspective

The ‘Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology’ initiative that has the purpose of assessing the reproducibility of preclinical research in Oncology was launched in 2013 as the result of a collaboration between the Center for Open Science and Science Exchange. The first results of the replication studies have just been published, however, their interpretation requires a careful approach. … Read More →... Read more »

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