In amongst my various ramblings about how vitamin D - the sunshine vitamin/hormone - might show more than a few connections to conditions/labels outside of just the English disease (see here), I've covered some science on a possible connection with psychosis (see here) and schizophrenia (see here). There are still gaps in terms of the hows and whys of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency when it comes to this area of psychiatry, but I believe there is enough science in this area to initially w........ Read more »
Lally, J., Gardner-Sood, P., Firdosi, M., Iyegbe, C., Stubbs, B., Greenwood, K., Murray, R., Smith, S., Howes, O., & Gaughran, F. (2016) Clinical correlates of vitamin D deficiency in established psychosis. BMC Psychiatry, 16(1). DOI: 10.1186/s12888-016-0780-2
I discuss some unique characteristics of octopus mating and describe a recent article on the Southern blue-ringed octopus.... Read more »
McCormick, M., Meekan, M., Huffard, C., Morse, P., & Zenger, K. (2015) Nocturnal mating behaviour and dynamic male investment of copulation time in the southern blue-ringed octopus, Hapalochlaena maculosa(Cephalopoda: Octopodidae). Behaviour, 152(14), 1883-1910. DOI: 10.1163/1568539X-00003321
The human brain was initially used for basic survival tasks, such as staying safe and hunting and gathering. Yet, 200,000 years later, the same human brain is able to learn abstract concepts, like momentum, energy, and gravity, which have only been formally defined in the last few centuries. New research has now uncovered how the brain is able to acquire brand new types of ideas.
... Read more »
Robert A. Mason, & Marcel Adam Just. (2016) Neural Representations of Physics Concepts . Psychological Science. info:other/Pre-print
by Maiju Strommer in Language on the Move
Let me at once introduce you to the main character of this blog post: Kifibin. He is a Ugandan man...... Read more »
Strömmer, M. (2015) Affordances and constraints: Second language learning in cleaning work. Multilingua. DOI: 10.1515/multi-2014-0113
This study was very well done, but it was not designed to provide valid information about the effects of amiodarone or lidocaine on witnessed arrests or on EMS Witnessed arrests. Maybe the authors were overconfident.
In resuscitation research, we have abundant evidence that overconfidence is much more common than improvements in outcomes.... Read more »
Kudenchuk, P., Brown, S., Daya, M., Rea, T., Nichol, G., Morrison, L., Leroux, B., Vaillancourt, C., Wittwer, L., Callaway, C.... (2016) Amiodarone, Lidocaine, or Placebo in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest. New England Journal of Medicine. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1514204
Glover BM, Brown SP, Morrison L, Davis D, Kudenchuk PJ, Van Ottingham L, Vaillancourt C, Cheskes S, Atkins DL, Dorian P.... (2012) Wide variability in drug use in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A report from the resuscitation outcomes consortium. Resuscitation. PMID: 22858552
Anthrax attacks in 2001 were a wake-up call for the importance of preparedness.... Read more »
Goel, A. (2015) Anthrax: A disease of biowarfare and public health importance. World Journal of Clinical Cases, 3(1), 20. DOI: 10.12998/wjcc.v3.i1.20
Riedel S. (2005) Anthrax: a continuing concern in the era of bioterrorism. Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center), 18(3), 234-43. PMID: 16200179
When I was a teenager, I read Stephen King's book The Stand. It begins with the near-obliteration of humankind by a lethal virus. This was weirdly alluring stuff for a angsty teenage daydreamer. What would you do if the world ended? What would be your fate? I figured I'd make it a couple of months on canned food before succumbing to some sort of brutal antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection.... Read more »
Calladine A, & Pate JS. (2000) Haustorial structure and functioning of the root hemiparastic tree Nuytsia floribunda (Labill.) R.Br. and water relationships with its hosts. Annals of Botany, 85(6), 723-731. DOI: 10.1006/anbo.2000.1130
Anyone will tell you that the most successful organisations have leaders who match the company culture. A CEO fixated on getting things done should lead somewhere driven by outcomes, a “mission culture”, whereas a people-focused leader suits a place focused on involvement and participation. This way everything is neat, tidy and aligned, with messages presented consistently, providing staff with reliable guides as to how to behave. But this is not what the data says in a new study published i........ Read more »
Hartnell, C., Kinicki, A., Schurer Lambert, L., Fugate, M., & Doyle Corner, P. (2016) Do Similarities or Differences Between CEO Leadership and Organizational Culture Have a More Positive Effect on Firm Performance? A Test of Competing Predictions. Journal of Applied Psychology. DOI: 10.1037/apl0000083
By guest blogger Melissa HogenboomA little fear can be a good thing but when it develops into a phobia, it can become debilitating. One way therapists treat fear disorders is using a technique called exposure therapy. As its name suggests, it involves gradually exposing a person to the very thing they are afraid of.The problem is that in the comfort of a therapist's office, recreating the fearful event is not always straightforward. This means patients may not be able to realistically confront w........ Read more »
Shiban, Y., Fruth, M., Pauli, P., Kinateder, M., Reichenberger, J., & Mühlberger, A. (2016) Treatment effect on biases in size estimation in spider phobia. Biological Psychology. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2016.03.005
A quote to begin: "multiple types of genetic risk for ASDs [autism spectrum disorders] influence a continuum of behavioral and developmental traits, the severe tail of which can result in diagnosis with an ASD or other neuropsychiatric disorder."That was the bottom line of the findings reported by Elise Robinson and colleagues  looking at data from "several large ASD consortium and population-based resources" (N~38,000) including the fabulous resource that is ALSPAC. Specifically an........ Read more »
Robinson EB, St Pourcain B, Anttila V, Kosmicki JA, Bulik-Sullivan B, Grove J, Maller J, Samocha KE, Sanders SJ, Ripke S.... (2016) Genetic risk for autism spectrum disorders and neuropsychiatric variation in the general population. Nature genetics. PMID: 26998691
Recently, I have been interacting more and more closely with experiment. This has put me in the fortunate position of balancing the design and analysis of both theoretical and experimental models. It is tempting to think of theorists as people that come up with ideas to explain an existing body of facts, and of mathematical […]... Read more »
Shnerb, N.M., Louzoun, Y., Bettelheim, E., & Solomon, S. (2000) The importance of being discrete: life always wins on the surface. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97(19), 10322-4. PMID: 10962027
Zika Virus (ZIKV) is a emerging positive strand RNA virus that belongs to the genus of Flaviviridae. Human infections are mostly asymptomatic although a causative link to microcephaly and Guillan-Barre Syndrome (GBS) have been proposed.
So far however no reliable animal model to study ZIKV associated disease has been identified but in order to test a potential vaccine and order to gain a better understanding of ZIKV pathogenesis animal models are being developed. Similar to DENV, these models ........ Read more »
Chan KW, Watanabe S, Kavishna R, Alonso S, & Vasudevan SG. (2015) Animal models for studying dengue pathogenesis and therapy. Antiviral research, 5-14. PMID: 26304704
DICK GW. (1952) Zika virus. II. Pathogenicity and physical properties. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 46(5), 521-34. PMID: 12995441
Rossi SL, Tesh RB, Azar SR, Muruato AE, Hanley KA, Auguste AJ, Langsjoen RM, Paessler S, Vasilakis N, & Weaver SC. (2016) Characterization of a Novel Murine Model to Study Zika Virus. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene. PMID: 27022155
Bell TM, Field EJ, & Narang HK. (1971) Zika virus infection of the central nervous system of mice. Archiv fur die gesamte Virusforschung, 35(2), 183-93. PMID: 5002906
Hamel R, Dejarnac O, Wichit S, Ekchariyawat P, Neyret A, Luplertlop N, Perera-Lecoin M, Surasombatpattana P, Talignani L, Thomas F.... (2015) Biology of Zika Virus Infection in Human Skin Cells. Journal of virology, 89(17), 8880-96. PMID: 26085147
Tang H, Hammack C, Ogden SC, Wen Z, Qian X, Li Y, Yao B, Shin J, Zhang F, Lee EM.... (2016) Zika Virus Infects Human Cortical Neural Progenitors and Attenuates Their Growth. Cell stem cell. PMID: 26952870
Nowakowski TJ, Pollen AA, Di Lullo E, Sandoval-Espinosa C, Bershteyn M, & Kriegstein AR. (2016) Expression Analysis Highlights AXL as a Candidate Zika Virus Entry Receptor in Neural Stem Cells. Cell stem cell. PMID: 27038591
Atkins GJ, & Sheahan BJ. (2016) Molecular Determinants of Alphavirus Neuropathogenesis in Mice. The Journal of general virology. PMID: 27028153
Liang J, Piao Y, Henry V, Tiao N, & de Groot JF. (2015) Interferon-regulatory factor-1 (IRF1) regulates bevacizumab induced autophagy. Oncotarget, 6(31), 31479-92. PMID: 26362401
Lefèvre F, Guillomot M, D'Andréa S, Battegay S, & La Bonnardière C. (1998) Interferon-delta: the first member of a novel type I interferon family. Biochimie, 80(8-9), 779-88. PMID: 9865499
Lazear HM, Daniels BP, Pinto AK, Huang AC, Vick SC, Doyle SE, Gale M Jr, Klein RS, & Diamond MS. (2015) Interferon-λ restricts West Nile virus neuroinvasion by tightening the blood-brain barrier. Science translational medicine, 7(284). PMID: 25904743
Rowland, A., Washington, C., Sheffield, J., Pardo-Villamizar, C., & Segars, J. (2016) Zika virus infection in semen: a call to action and research. Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, 33(4), 435-437. DOI: 10.1007/s10815-016-0684-6
A reduced perception of recovery during a season may increase the risk of acute and overuse injury.... Read more »
van der Does HT, Brink MS, Otter RT, Visscher C, & Lemmink KA. (2016) Injury Risk Is Increased by Changes in Perceived Recovery of Team Sport Players. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. PMID: 26945309
Paranoia, defined as the unfounded or exaggerated idea that something or someone is deliberately trying to psychologically, physically or financially harm you, is not an uncommon transient sentiment among the general population at one time or another. On a more pathological level, paranoid schizophrenia perhaps represents the archetypal label where paranoia assumes an altogether more persistent and 'life-changing' effect; also potentially escalating into more extreme behaviour/s.The idea th........ Read more »
Spain, D., Sin, J., & Freeman, D. (2016) Conceptualising paranoia in ASD: A systematic review and development of a theoretical framework. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 97-111. DOI: 10.1016/j.rasd.2016.02.002
River flooding boosts carbon emissions, six new species of Chinese dragon millipedes discovered, how ancient animals adapted to climate change, maths tell palaeontologists where to find fossils, and the Arctic Ocean was ice-free ten million years ago. Here are five of the latest scientific studies published open-access this week.... Read more »
Stegen, J., Fredrickson, J., Wilkins, M., Konopka, A., Nelson, W., Arntzen, E., Chrisler, W., Chu, R., Danczak, R., Fansler, S.... (2016) Groundwater–surface water mixing shifts ecological assembly processes and stimulates organic carbon turnover. Nature Communications, 11237. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms11237
Liu, W., Golovatch, S., & Tian, M. (2016) Six new species of dragon millipedes, genus Desmoxytes Chamberlin, 1923, mostly from caves in China (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae). ZooKeys, 1-24. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.577.7825
Botha-Brink, J., Codron, D., Huttenlocker, A., Angielczyk, K., & Ruta, M. (2016) Breeding Young as a Survival Strategy during Earth’s Greatest Mass Extinction. Scientific Reports, 24053. DOI: 10.1038/srep24053
Block, S., Saltré, F., Rodríguez-Rey, M., Fordham, D., Unkel, I., & Bradshaw, C. (2016) Where to Dig for Fossils: Combining Climate-Envelope, Taphonomy and Discovery Models. PLOS ONE, 11(3). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151090
Stein, R., Fahl, K., Schreck, M., Knorr, G., Niessen, F., Forwick, M., Gebhardt, C., Jensen, L., Kaminski, M., Kopf, A.... (2016) Evidence for ice-free summers in the late Miocene central Arctic Ocean. Nature Communications, 11148. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms11148
Spaced practice, also called distributed practice, refers to the practice—after initial learning—of leaving gaps in time between sessions devoted to reviewing previously learned material. This stands in contrast to its much less effective counterpart, massed practice, which "crams" all of the review together in time.... Read more »
Kang, S. (2016) Spaced Repetition Promotes Efficient and Effective Learning: Policy Implications for Instruction. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 3(1), 12-19. DOI: 10.1177/2372732215624708
Many of the misconceptions we deal with in mathematics education in particular can be seen as the result of dealing with objects of 'low discriminability' (objects that are hard to tell apart). In many cases, these objects really are hard to tell apart, and in others we simply make them hard through our sequencing.... Read more »
Birnbaum, M., Kornell, N., Bjork, E., & Bjork, R. (2012) Why interleaving enhances inductive learning: The roles of discrimination and retrieval. Memory , 41(3), 392-402. DOI: 10.3758/s13421-012-0272-7
"Contrary to our hypothesis, we found no relationship between systemizing and math achievement after controlling for domain general abilities and no relationship between the systemizing brain type (greater discrepancy between systemizing and empathizing) and math achievement."That quote taken from the study published by Emily Escovar and colleagues  (open-access available here) provides some blogging fodder today. Based on some ideas proposed in autism research circles that "mathematics ........ Read more »
Escovar E, Rosenberg-Lee M, Uddin LQ, & Menon V. (2016) The Empathizing-Systemizing Theory, Social Abilities, and Mathematical Achievement in Children. Scientific reports, 23011. PMID: 26972835
If birds fretted about their biological clocks like humans do, it would be the dads of some species doing the worrying, not the moms. When male albatrosses have chicks later in life, those chicks grow up to fare worse. It's because albatrosses of both sexes are such good parents to begin with.
Wandering albatrosses (Diomedea exulans) share parenting duties "quite equitably," explains Rémi Fay, a graduate student in biology at France's CNRS. The giant seabirds mate for life. Every other y........ Read more »
Fay, R., Barbraud, C., Delord, K., & Weimerskirch, H. (2016) Paternal but not maternal age influences early-life performance of offspring in a long-lived seabird. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 283(1828), 20152318. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2015.2318
The real cost of sequencing is as hard to pin down as a sumo wrestler. Working in a large-scale sequencing laboratory offers an interesting perspective on the duality of the so-called “cost per genome.” On one hand, we see certain equipment manufacturers and many people in the media tossing around claims that sequencing a genome […]... Read more »
Muir P, Li S, Lou S, Wang D, Spakowicz DJ, Salichos L, Zhang J, Weinstock GM, Isaacs F, Rozowsky J.... (2016) The real cost of sequencing: scaling computation to keep pace with data generation. Genome biology, 17(1), 53. PMID: 27009100
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