Post List

  • January 18, 2015
  • 02:16 PM
  • 72 views

Whose Culture is it Anyway? Disentangling Culture and Eating Disorders - Part 1

by Andrea in Science of Eating Disorders

Often, in writing about eating disorders, you will come across references to how some consider these disorders to be “culture bound.” If you start to unpack what researchers and clinicians are referring to, you might come to the conclusion that “culture bound” means specific to one particular culture or society, for example, modern Western society.... Read more »

  • January 18, 2015
  • 12:30 PM
  • 75 views

The genetics of Mexico recapitulates Native American substructure and affects biomedical traits.

by Marianna Spatola in genome ecology evolution etc

All figures are reproduced from the original paper (Moreno Estrada et al. Science 2014) Summary and personal comments This paper is about genetic diversity among Native Mexico populations Mexico is an interesting region/subject to study human genetic diversity since it … Continue reading →... Read more »

Moreno-Estrada, A., Gignoux, C., Fernandez-Lopez, J., Zakharia, F., Sikora, M., Contreras, A., Acuna-Alonzo, V., Sandoval, K., Eng, C., Romero-Hidalgo, S.... (2014) The genetics of Mexico recapitulates Native American substructure and affects biomedical traits. Science, 344(6189), 1280-1285. DOI: 10.1126/science.1251688  

  • January 18, 2015
  • 09:59 AM
  • 94 views

BPA, BPA-free and why Internet titles can be misleading

by EE Giorgi in CHIMERAS

A few years ago, when I still had both kids in preschool, I became painfully aware that plastic is made of oil. I know, I know, where had I been until then? Underground, I guess. All the bottles I'd used to feed milk and drinks to my kids were scratched and chewed and horrid. I screeched in panic, threw them all away and replaced everything with stainless steel. My kids hated the new bottles and refused to take them to school. Yeah, the joys of parenthood.So, imagine my joy when BPA-free came ar........ Read more »

Machluf, Y., Gutnick, A., & Levkowitz, G. (2011) Development of the zebrafish hypothalamus. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1220(1), 93-105. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05945.x  

  • January 18, 2015
  • 08:29 AM
  • 104 views

Machine Learning: Exceeding Chance Level By Chance

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic_Discover

A simple statistical misunderstanding is leading many neuroscientists astray in their use of machine learning tools, according to a new paper in the Journal of Neuroscience Methods: Exceeding chance level by chance.



As the authors, French neuroscientists Etienne Combrisson and Karim Jerbi, describe the issue:
Machine learning techniques are increasingly used in neuroscience to classify brain signals. Decoding performance is reflected by how much the classification results depart from the... Read more »

  • January 17, 2015
  • 04:00 PM
  • 27 views

On the Seven Sins of Memory with Daniel Schacter

by Waseem Akhtar in Bridging the Gaps,

What exactly is a memory? How much do we know about the processes that a human brain executes to store and retrieve a memory? An individual memory may contain different elements such as explicit information, one or many contexts, relevant emotions; does the brain pre-process all individual elements of a memory and then stores this processed memory as one single entity? Or, are different elements of an individual memory stored at different locations in the form of a connected structure or network........ Read more »

  • January 17, 2015
  • 02:18 PM
  • 101 views

Pythagoras theorem could improve patient care

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Triangles, few of us have ever thought of a relationship between health care and triangles. Most of us will remember Pythagoras theorem from our school days, but rarely have a reason to use it in day-to-day life. Well for Doctors that might change, a team of medical researchers has found the 2,500-year-old Pythagoras theorem could be the most effective way to identify the point at which a patient’s health begins to improve.... Read more »

  • January 17, 2015
  • 05:25 AM
  • 92 views

What can physical activity do for ADHD?

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

In answer to the question posed in the title of this post, I might refer you to the paper by Susanne Ziereis & Petra Jansen [1] who concluded that results of their research study looking at the impact of two 12-week training programs "support the hypothesis that long-term PA [physical activity] has a positive effect on executive functions of children with ADHD [attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder]."That's the funny thing about birthdays, they're kind of an annual thi........ Read more »

  • January 16, 2015
  • 03:41 PM
  • 101 views

New genetic clues in fragile x syndrome

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Scientists have gained new insight into fragile X syndrome — the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability — by studying the case of a person without the disorder, but with two of its classic symptoms.... Read more »

Myrick LK, Deng PY, Hashimoto H, Oh YM, Cho Y, Poidevin MJ, Suhl JA, Visootsak J, Cavalli V, Jin P.... (2015) Independent role for presynaptic FMRP revealed by an FMR1 missense mutation associated with intellectual disability and seizures. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. PMID: 25561520  

  • January 16, 2015
  • 01:50 PM
  • 109 views

Breaking Research: Fruit flies help uncover the brain’s link between sleep and memory

by Bethany Christmann in Fly on the Wall

Researchers at Brandeis University have found that the link between sleep and memory is stronger than we thought. It is well known that sleep is important for learning and memory, and many people can attest to having a hard time focusing and remembering things after a bad night’s sleep. Students often receive advice about getting […]... Read more »

  • January 16, 2015
  • 11:08 AM
  • 113 views

Know your brain: Reward system

by neurosci in Neuroscientifically Challenged

Where is the reward system?The term reward system refers to a group of structures that are activated by rewarding or reinforcing stimuli (e.g. addictive drugs). When exposed to a rewarding stimulus, the brain responds by increasing release of the neurotransmitter dopamine and thus the structures associated with the reward system are found along the major dopamine pathways in the brain. The mesolimbic dopamine pathway is thought to play a primary role in the reward system. It connects the ventral........ Read more »

Wise RA. (1998) Drug-activation of brain reward pathways. Drug and alcohol dependence, 51(1-2), 13-22. PMID: 9716927  

  • January 16, 2015
  • 07:02 AM
  • 90 views

Conspiracy beliefs and the relation to emotional uncertainty

by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room

It is no secret that we are intrigued by conspiracy theorists here at The Jury Room. Not only are they good for entertainment value during pretrial research, they are also very useful to help us plug holes in case narrative that could derail deliberations. When it comes to the actual trial though, conspiracy enthusiasts are […]

Related posts:
“Stop picking fights and get some emotional intelligence!”
Conspiracy theorists and survey design
Conspiracy theories that haven’t come up i........ Read more »

  • January 16, 2015
  • 06:10 AM
  • 95 views

Fixing ‘Leaky’ Blood Vessels in Severe Respiratory Ailments and Ebola

by Jalees Rehman in The Next Regeneration

When you get an infection, your immune system responds with an influx of inflammatory cells that target the underlying bacteria or viruses. These immune cells migrate from your blood into the infected tissue in order to release a cocktail of pro-inflammatory proteins and help eliminate the infectious threat.

During this inflammatory response, the blood vessel barrier becomes “leaky.” This allows for an even more rapid influx of additional immune cells. Once the infection resolves,........ Read more »

Gong, H., Rehman, J., Tang, H., Wary, K., Mittal, M., Chatturvedi, P., Zhao, Y., Komorova, Y., Vogel, S., & Malik, A. (2015) HIF2α signaling inhibits adherens junctional disruption in acute lung injury. Journal of Clinical Investigation. DOI: 10.1172/JCI77701  

  • January 16, 2015
  • 04:52 AM
  • 104 views

The gut and 15q Duplication Syndrome

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"The results indicate that GI [gastrointestinal] symptoms are common in Dup15q syndrome and may have an atypical presentation."Let's just say I'm Frankenstein's monster. And I'm looking for my creator.That was the conclusion reached in the paper by Elias Shaaya and colleagues [1] following a review of medical records for a small-ish group of participants diagnosed with chromosome 15q duplication syndrome (dup15q syndrome), a genetic condition "involving copy number gains of the ma........ Read more »

Shaaya, E., Pollack, S., Boronat, S., Davis-Cooper, S., Zella, G., & Thibert, R. (2015) Gastrointestinal Problems in 15q Duplication Syndrome. European Journal of Medical Genetics. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2014.12.012  

  • January 16, 2015
  • 04:24 AM
  • 18 views

Reverse psychology: How bad managers inspire team camaraderie

by BPS Research Digest in BPS Research Digest

An unfair, uncaring manager makes for an uncertain working life, one characterised by stress, absenteeism and poor performance. But new research suggests a silver lining: when the boss is unjust, team members come together.A multi-institution collaboration led by Adam Stoverink presented teams of students with an awkward event. The students thought they’d been recruited to solve tasks for a cash prize, but they were left twiddling their thumbs while waiting for an assigned supervisor to show u........ Read more »

  • January 16, 2015
  • 01:47 AM
  • 85 views

Lower Mortality Rates Among Asian and Hispanic Lupus Patients

by Wiley Asia Blog in Wiley Asia Blog - Health Sciences

A new study by researchers from Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts reveals that Asian and Hispanic patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have lower mortality rates compared to Black, White, or Native Americans with the disease. Findings published in Arthritis & Rheumatology,a journal of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), indicate that the risk for death among White patients is much lower than in Black and Native American SLE patients.

Patients with........ Read more »

  • January 15, 2015
  • 02:25 PM
  • 128 views

Scientists use the brain to direct fat burning

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Does it seem like no matter what you do, you still can’t shed the pounds? You know what to eat, how to eat and workout regularly, but the weight just won’t go away, well you may not be alone. There are many different medical conditions that limit your ability to lose weight, but thankfully science has now found how to use your brain to shed the weight.... Read more »

Dodd, G., Decherf, S., Loh, K., Simonds, S., Wiede, F., Balland, E., Merry, T., Münzberg, H., Zhang, Z., Kahn, B.... (2015) Leptin and Insulin Act on POMC Neurons to Promote the Browning of White Fat. Cell, 160(1-2), 88-104. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2014.12.022  

  • January 15, 2015
  • 01:56 PM
  • 85 views

KSHV and autophagy: vFLIP, v-CyclinD, and v-Bcl2

by thelonevirologist in Virology Tidbits

Deregulation of autophagy isnot limited to cells infected with viruses or bacteria but can also be observed in human cancers. In the context of infection of cells with oncogenic viruses, interference with the autophagy pathway has been documented for proteins derived from a variety of oncogenic viruses, including but not limited to proteins encoded by Human T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma Virus-1 (HTLV-1), JC virus (JCV), BK polyomavirus (BKPyV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associa........ Read more »

Silva LM, & Jung JU. (2013) Modulation of the autophagy pathway by human tumor viruses. Seminars in cancer biology, 23(5), 323-8. PMID: 23727156  

Bouley SJ, Maginnis MS, Derdowski A, Gee GV, O'Hara BA, Nelson CD, Bara AM, Atwood WJ, & Dugan AS. (2014) Host cell autophagy promotes BK virus infection. Virology, 87-95. PMID: 24889228  

Pekkonen P, Järviluoma A, Zinovkina N, Cvrljevic A, Prakash S, Westermarck J, Evan GI, Cesarman E, Verschuren EW, & Ojala PM. (2014) KSHV viral cyclin interferes with T-cell development and induces lymphoma through Cdk6 and Notch activation in vivo. Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.), 13(23), 3670-84. PMID: 25483078  

Wirawan E, Lippens S, Vanden Berghe T, Romagnoli A, Fimia GM, Piacentini M, & Vandenabeele P. (2012) Beclin1: a role in membrane dynamics and beyond. Autophagy, 8(1), 6-17. PMID: 22170155  

Lee JS, Li Q, Lee JY, Lee SH, Jeong JH, Lee HR, Chang H, Zhou FC, Gao SJ, Liang C.... (2009) FLIP-mediated autophagy regulation in cell death control. Nature cell biology, 11(11), 1355-62. PMID: 19838173  

Liang Q, Chang B, Brulois KF, Castro K, Min CK, Rodgers MA, Shi M, Ge J, Feng P, Oh BH.... (2013) Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K7 modulates Rubicon-mediated inhibition of autophagosome maturation. Journal of virology, 87(22), 12499-503. PMID: 24027317  

Huang X, Wu Z, Mei Y, & Wu M. (2013) XIAP inhibits autophagy via XIAP-Mdm2-p53 signalling. The EMBO journal, 32(16), 2204-16. PMID: 23749209  

  • January 15, 2015
  • 12:00 PM
  • 103 views

Deworming treatments and microbial infections: good for you, not so good for everyone else

by Betty Zou in Eat, Read, Science

In this study, Drs. Ezenwa and Jolles have shown that when it comes to microbial co-infections, anthelmintic treatments are a double-edged sword. The individual benefits of treatment need to be carefully weighed against the potential costs to the population, an important consideration given that anthelmintic treatments are currently being considered as strategies to help manage chronic infections like HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis.... Read more »

  • January 15, 2015
  • 09:15 AM
  • 113 views

2-7 Offsuit: Is Cancer Just "Bad Luck"?

by Bill Sullivan in The 'Scope

A controversial new study suggests that most cancer is just a matter of "bad luck". Is it?... Read more »

  • January 15, 2015
  • 09:02 AM
  • 100 views

Trepanation! Not Just For Headaches: Tibial Surgery in Ancient Peru

by Katy Meyers Emery in Bones Don't Lie

Over the past two years, I’ve been commuting from my home to my university. It’s about an hour drive each way (unless it’s snowing, and then it could be two […]... Read more »

Toyne, J. (2015) Tibial surgery in ancient Peru. International Journal of Paleopathology, 29-35. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpp.2014.09.002  

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