"Changes in reporting practices can account for most (60%) of the increase in the observed prevalence of ASDs [autism spectrum disorders] in children born from 1980 through 1991 in Denmark."Prince of Denmark @ Wikipedia That was the headline conclusion reported by Stefan Nygaard Hansen and colleagues  based on an analysis of births in Denmark between 1st January 1980 and 31st December 1991 (N=677,915) followed up until 31st December 2011 (or "until ASD diagnosis, deat........ Read more »
Hansen, S., Schendel, D., & Parner, E. (2014) Explaining the Increase in the Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders. JAMA Pediatrics. DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.1893
Scientists have found a new type of polio virus that is thought to be responsible for the major epidemics of polio cases in the recent times. This polio virus is not affected by polio vaccines.
Polio is an acute form of viral disease that is caused by inflammation of nerve cells of the brain stem and spinal cord. Virus behind this disease is poliomyelitis. Science has successfully helped humanity in reducing the number of polio cases b........ Read more »
Drexler, J., Grard, G., Lukashev, A., Kozlovskaya, L., Bottcher, S., Uslu, G., Reimerink, J., Gmyl, A., Taty-Taty, R., Lekana-Douki, S.... (2014) Robustness against serum neutralization of a poliovirus type 1 from a lethal epidemic of poliomyelitis in the Republic of Congo in 2010. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(35), 12889-12894. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1323502111
Among knees with a history of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and chronic quadriceps dysfunction, the application of cryotherapy prior to performing exercises may help mitigate arthrogenic muscle inhibition and improve muscle function.... Read more »
Hart, J., Kuenze, C., Diduch, D., & Ingersoll, C. (2014) Quadriceps Muscle Function After Rehabilitation With Cryotherapy in Patients With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. Journal of Athletic Training, 2147483647. DOI: 10.4085/1062-6050-49.3.39
“Red meat is bad for your heart”, that is typically the story we hear from people. While some might take this as meat is bad for us, or that it is wrong to eat red meat, science has been trying to find a better answer to that question. After all it wouldn’t do for science to say, it just does. Well as luck may have it, new research provides details on how gut bacteria turn a nutrient found in red meat into metabolites that increase the risk of developing heart disease. The findings may lea........ Read more »
Koeth RA, Wang Z, Levison BS, Buffa JA, Org E, Sheehy BT, Britt EB, Fu X, Wu Y, Li L.... (2013) Intestinal microbiota metabolism of L-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis. Nature medicine, 19(5), 576-85. PMID: 23563705
Robert A. Koeth, Bruce S. Levison, Miranda K. Culley, Jennifer A. Buff, Zeneng Wang, Jill C. Gregory, Elin Org, Yuping Wu, Lin Li, Jonathan D. Smith, W.H. Wilson Tang, Joseph A. DiDonato.... (2014) g-Butyrobetaine is a proatherogenic intermediate in gut microbial metabolism of L-carnitine to TMAO. Cell Press. info:/10.1016/j.cmet.2014.10.006.
Earlier this year, a paper in Science attempted to answer the question: how many smells can we actually smell? At least one trillion, they claimed. Recently, Markus Meister posted a paper on arxiv which made the bold claim that we can … Continue reading →... Read more »
Bushdid, C., Magnasco, M., Vosshall, L., & Keller, A. (2014) Humans Can Discriminate More than 1 Trillion Olfactory Stimuli. Science, 343(6177), 1370-1372. DOI: 10.1126/science.1249168
Meister M. (2014) Can Humans Really Discriminate 1 Trillion Odors?. arXiv. info:/
Brain research in anorexia nervosa presents several challenges.Current knowledge of cognitive function in anorexia supports impairment in set shifting and global brain processing or central coherence.However, there are two issues that complicate understanding the underlying brain effects in anorexia nervosa.First, individuals with anorexia nervosa often have additional anxiety and mood disorders. It can be difficult to tease out the specific effects of anorexia nervosa from the effects of these ........ Read more »
Pender, S., Gilbert, S., & Serpell, L. (2014) The Neuropsychology of Starvation: Set-Shifting and Central Coherence in a Fasted Nonclinical Sample. PLoS ONE, 9(10). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0110743
Billingsley-Marshall RL, Basso MR, Lund BC, Hernandez ER, Johnson CL, Drevets WC, McKee PA, & Yates WR. (2013) Executive function in eating disorders: the role of state anxiety. The International journal of eating disorders, 46(4), 316-21. PMID: 23354876
You rake leaves and lug them to the curb, or you push them into your neighbor’s yard with your blower. Either way, do you know where the matter/mass in all those leaves comes from? You won’t believe the answer. But the leaf may be passé. New research is showing how artificial leaves can produce oxygen for space travel and hydrogen for fuel cells.... Read more »
Pijpers, J., Winkler, M., Surendranath, Y., Buonassisi, T., & Nocera, D. (2011) Light-induced water oxidation at silicon electrodes functionalized with a cobalt oxygen-evolving catalyst. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(25), 10056-10061. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1106545108
Why do we dream? It's still a scientific mystery. The "Threat Simulation Theory" proposes that we dream as a way to simulate real-life threats and prepare ourselves for dealing with them. "This simulation in an almost-real experiential world would train the brain to perceive dangers and rapidly face them within the safe condition of sleeping," write the authors of a new paper that's put the theory to the test.Isabelle Arnulf and her colleagues reasoned that if dreams help simulate future threats........ Read more »
Arnulf, I., Grosliere, L., Le Corvec, T., Golmard, J., Lascols, O., & Duguet, A. (2014) Will students pass a competitive exam that they failed in their dreams?. Consciousness and Cognition, 36-47. DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2014.06.010
I was interested to read the paper by Elizabeth Pellicano and colleagues  (open-access) investigating "the views of community involvement in autism research both from the perspectives of autism researchers and of community members, including autistic adults, family members and practitioners". Quite a few results are reported including the idea that researchers "were skeptical about the possibilities of dramatically increasing community engagement, while community members themselves spoke abou........ Read more »
Pellicano E, Dinsmore A, & Charman T. (2014) Views on Researcher-Community Engagement in Autism Research in the United Kingdom: A Mixed-Methods Study. PloS one, 9(10). PMID: 25303222
by hirokin in the Node
Chicken, quail, zebra finch, emu, duck, crow……a simple glimpse and we immediately realize how the Aves have, as a model system left their traces in various fields of biological research. And within the Aves class, the domestic fowl Gallus gallus is no doubt revered highly among the developmental biologists for their certainly distinguished career. Discovery […]... Read more »
Nagai, H., Sezaki, M., Nakamura, H., & Sheng, G. (2014) Extending the limits of avian embryo culture with the modified Cornish pasty and whole-embryo transplantation methods. Methods, 66(3), 441-446. DOI: 10.1016/j.ymeth.2013.05.005
Nagai, H., Lin, M., & Sheng, G. (2011) A modified cornish pasty method for ex ovo culture of the chick embryo. genesis, 49(1), 46-52. DOI: 10.1002/dvg.20690
Tanaka, J., Harada, H., Ito, K., Ogura, T., & Nakamura, H. (2010) Gene manipulation of chick embryos in vitro, early chick culture, and long survival in transplanted eggs. Development, Growth , 52(7), 629-634. DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-169X.2010.01198.x
Nagai, H., Sezaki, M., Bertocchini, F., Fukuda, K., & Sheng, G. (2014) HINTW, a W-chromosome HINT gene in chick, is expressed ubiquitously and is a robust female cell marker applicable in intraspecific chimera studies . Genesis, 52(5), 424-430. DOI: 10.1002/dvg.22769
We continue our Researcher of the Month (RotM) series, with an interview with Professor Michael Garstang, Distinguished Investigator and Research Professor at the Department of Environmental Sciences at the University of Virgina. Professor Garstang is also associated with a Simpsons Weather Associates, a private environmental research company and recently published a paper in PLoS One about ... Read more »
Garstang, M., Davis, R., Leggett, K., Frauenfeld, O., Greco, S., Zipser, E., & Peterson, M. (2014) Response of African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) to Seasonal Changes in Rainfall. PLoS ONE, 9(10). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0108736
Kelley, M., & Garstang, M. (2013) On the Possible Detection of Lightning Storms by Elephants. Animals, 3(2), 349-355. DOI: 10.3390/ani3020349
Babies, even 15-months-old, can identify the anger of adults. Interestingly, they have the ability to change their behavior in response to anger.
Psychologists have found that babies not only learn from their own social experiences but also from looking at social interactions of other people. This shows that babies have a good level of emotional intelligence that could be more than we think. They start learning about s........ Read more »
Repacholi, B., Meltzoff, A., Rowe, H., & Toub, T. (2014) Infant, control thyself: Infants’ integration of multiple social cues to regulate their imitative behavior. Cognitive Development, 46-57. DOI: 10.1016/j.cogdev.2014.04.004
Ever think you could have built something better if you had a hand in the design? Sometimes people just have a desire to make, after all the maker movement is huge for a reason. Well geneticists have a new toy tool to play with —dubbed “the telomerator”—that could redefine the limits of synthetic biology and advance how successfully living things can be engineered or constructed in the laboratory based on an organism’s genetic, chemical base-pair structure. How cool is that?!... Read more »
J. Boeke et al. (2014) Circular permutation of a synthetic eukaryotic chromosome with the telomerator. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. info:/10.1073/pnas.1414399111
The first time a colony of Antarctic penguins sees a towering human striding toward them, it must be like First Contact. They’ve never seen a species our size on land before, or anything that moves like we do. Even after penguins have interacted with researchers, the approach of a human is a physiologically stressful experience. […]The post For Stress-Free Penguins, Use a Rover appeared first on Inkfish.... Read more »
Maho, Y., Whittington, J., Hanuise, N., Pereira, L., Boureau, M., Brucker, M., Chatelain, N., Courtecuisse, J., Crenner, F., Friess, B.... (2014) Rovers minimize human disturbance in research on wild animals. Nature Methods. DOI: 10.1038/nmeth.3173
by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room
This post might well fall into the category of “the route to tenure-track publication credits is not always the high road”. We discard lots of dicey research reports (such as this one) because they add nothing to our goal of improving litigation advocacy. But this one was so weird we found it amusing. Enjoy. But […]
“Unpleasant body odor” and people’s desire to help you
Excuse me potential juror: Is your brain red or blue?
Things You Should (Maybe) Know…
........ Read more »
McDermott, R., Tingley, D., & Hatemi, P. (2014) Assortative Mating on Ideology Could Operate Through Olfactory Cues. American Journal of Political Science, 58(4), 997-1005. DOI: 10.1111/ajps.12133
Sympathy towards the suffering is culture-dependent. People from "simpatico" cultures such as Brazil or Costa Rica are more likely to help people in need, as are people from economically poorer nations compared to wealthier counterparts. Now new research explores differences in how sympathy is expressed within two Western countries. Americans encourage sufferers to look for the light at the end of the tunnel, the study finds, while Germans are more comfortable gazing at its dark walls.Birgit Koo........ Read more »
Koopmann-Holm, B., & Tsai, J. (2014) Focusing on the Negative: Cultural Differences in Expressions of Sympathy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. DOI: 10.1037/a0037684
"In summary, this work has demonstrated the potential value of long-term probiotic-based interventions to counter mercury and arsenic exposure in vulnerable populations, particularly in pregnant women".Sounds like an '80s man to me...That was one of the primary conclusions reported by Jordan Bisanz and colleagues  (open-access) examining "at-risk populations of pregnant women and in children in Mwanza, Tanzania". The idea being that alongside the use of metal chelating medicines such as ........ Read more »
Jordan E. Bisanz, Megan K. Enos, Joseph R. Mwanga, John Changalucha, Jeremy P. Burton, Gregory B. Gloor, & Gregor Reid. (2014) Randomized Open-Label Pilot Study of the Influence of Probiotics and the Gut Microbiome on Toxic Metal Levels in Tanzanian Pregnant Women and School Children. mBio. info:/10.1128/mBio.01580-14
Adolescent cannabis use has been linked to risk of psychosis in a number of studies. However, the question of whether cannabis use actually causes some people to become psychotic is a difficult one to answer and the evidence remains inconclusive. Furthermore, long-term studies on cannabis use have generally not considered that personality characteristics that have been linked to mental illness might also prompt a person’s decision to use drugs such as cannabis.... Read more »
McLaren JA, Silins E, Hutchinson D, Mattick RP, & Hall W. (2010) Assessing evidence for a causal link between cannabis and psychosis: a review of cohort studies. The International journal on drug policy, 21(1), 10-9. PMID: 19783132
The vestibular/ocular motor screening (VOMS) is valid assessment to identify young patients with concussions.... Read more »
Mucha A, Collins MW, Elbin RJ, Furman JM, Troutman-Enseki C, DeWolf RM, Marchetti G, & Kontos AP. (2014) A Brief Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) Assessment to Evaluate Concussions: Preliminary Findings. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 42(10), 2479-86. PMID: 25106780
Our recent study on maerl sediment dynamics has found that the settling velocity of maerl is primarily governed by the grain shape properties of maerl. A grain shape parameter known as the convexity has been linked to the settling velocity via the Ferguson and Church model (Ferguson and Church, 2004). Due to the grain shape of maerl and roughness, it experiences a greater drag than the natural quartz grain. Detailed measurements of maërl grain shape using microscopic image analysis confirm ........ Read more »
Ferguson, R., & Church, M. (2004) A Simple Universal Equation for Grain Settling Velocity. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 74(6), 933-937. DOI: 10.1306/051204740933
Joshi, S., Duffy, G., & Brown, C. (2014) Settling Velocity and Grain Shape of Maerl Biogenic Gravel. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 84(8), 718-727. DOI: 10.2110/jsr.2014.51
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