The paper by Traolach Brugha and colleagues  makes for some blogging fodder today and the suggestion that: "The combined prevalence of autism in adults of all ages in England was 11/1000."Just before going through the Brugha paper it is perhaps appropriate to put it into some context based on other work from this group previously covered on this blog (see here) and the findings again by Brugha and colleagues  (a further report on their findings that time around can be seen h........ Read more »
Brugha TS, Spiers N, Bankart J, Cooper SA, McManus S, Scott FJ, Smith J, & Tyrer F. (2016) Epidemiology of autism in adults across age groups and ability levels. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. PMID: 27388569
A team of Toronto scientists has found similarities in brain impairments in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The study involved brain imaging of white matter in 200 children with autism, ADHD, OCD or no diagnosis.
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Ameis, S., Lerch, J., Taylor, M., Lee, W., Viviano, J., Pipitone, J., Nazeri, A., Croarkin, P., Voineskos, A., Lai, M.... (2016) A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study in Children With ADHD, Autism Spectrum Disorder, OCD, and Matched Controls: Distinct and Non-Distinct White Matter Disruption and Dimensional Brain-Behavior Relationships. American Journal of Psychiatry. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2016.15111435
The e-book Global report shows that the traditional model based on large publishing houses was insufficient to incorporate the possibilities of technological advances. On the one hand, the new reading models through smartphones and subscription platforms and on the other hand, self-publishing of ebooks open opportunities to both individual authors and non-profit organizations in the educational field to produce and distribute their own works at low cost and minimal infrastructure requirements. &........ Read more »
WISCHENBART, R.,, & et al. (2016) Global eBook: a report on market trends an developments. Rüdiger Wischenbart Content and Consulting (RWCC). info:/
If you're ever lost in a remote European forest, you might be able to get your bearings by finding a herd of roe deer. These animals like to align themselves roughly north-south, whether they're standing still or fleeing danger.
Roe deer are small, reddish or grayish grazers common in Europe and Asia. Petr Obleser, of the Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague, and his coauthors studied the behavior of these skittish herbivores to look for evidence that they can sense the earth's ma........ Read more »
One would think that people with few friends and living in poverty are more at risk for PTSD than those with a strong support network and many resources. And that's true.
However, it is a different story when you look at the country-, rather than the individual level. Countries with more resources, such as the USA and the Netherlands, have higher levels of PTSD than countries with fewer resources (e.g. Colombia, South Africa).
... Read more »
Dückers ML, Alisic E, & Brewin CR. (2016) A vulnerability paradox in the cross-national prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder. The British Journal of Psychiatry. PMID: 27445357
Food puzzles will help satisfy your cat’s hunting instinct, but most cats are missing out.A new paper on food puzzle toys for cats has plenty of ideas to get everyone started on these wonderful enrichment items. The research, led by Mikel Delgado (University of California, Berkeley; Feline Minds), combines a review of the scientific literature on food toys as feline enrichment with practical tips gained from the authors’ work as feline behaviour practitioners.Food puzzles are toys that make ........ Read more »
Dantas, L., Delgado, M., Johnson, I., & Buffington, C. (2016) Food puzzles for cats: feeding for physical and emotional wellbeing. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery. DOI: 10.1177/1098612X16643753
In a new paper that could prove explosive, Australian neuropathologists C. V. Dennis and colleagues report that they found very little evidence for adult neurogenesis in humans.
In recent years, the idea that neurogenesis - the production of new neurons - occurs in specific regions of the adult brain has become widely accepted, and much discussed. Disruptions to neurogenesis have been proposed to play a role in stress, depression, and other disorders.
However, Dennis et al. say that ne... Read more »
Dennis CV, Suh LS, Rodriguez ML, Kril JJ, & Sutherland GT. (2016) Human adult neurogenesis across the ages: An immunohistochemical study. Neuropathology and applied neurobiology. PMID: 27424496
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are a diverse group of small double-stranded DNA viruses with specific mucosal or cutaneous tropisms. It is estimated that up to 80% of sexually active individuals will become infected with HPV sometime in their lifetime, making HPV the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection. HPVs can be further divided into high- and low-risk genotypes, based on their oncogenic potential. High-risk HPVs are implicated as causal in nearly 100% of cervical cancers, approximatel........ Read more »
Cicchini L, Westrich JA, Xu T, Vermeer DW, Berger JN, Clambey ET, Lee D, Song JI, Lambert PF, Greer RO.... (2016) Suppression of Antitumor Immune Responses by Human Papillomavirus through Epigenetic Downregulation of CXCL14. mBio, 7(3). PMID: 27143385
Stransky N, Egloff AM, Tward AD, Kostic AD, Cibulskis K, Sivachenko A, Kryukov GV, Lawrence MS, Sougnez C, McKenna A.... (2011) The mutational landscape of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6046), 1157-60. PMID: 21798893
Anayannis NV, Schlecht NF, & Belbin TJ. (2015) Epigenetic Mechanisms of Human Papillomavirus-Associated Head and Neck Cancer. Archives of pathology , 139(11), 1373-8. PMID: 25978766
Cancer Genome Atlas Network. (2015) Comprehensive genomic characterization of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Nature, 517(7536), 576-82. PMID: 25631445
Burgers WA, Blanchon L, Pradhan S, de Launoit Y, Kouzarides T, & Fuks F. (2007) Viral oncoproteins target the DNA methyltransferases. Oncogene, 26(11), 1650-5. PMID: 16983344
Schlecht NF, Kulaga S, Robitaille J, Ferreira S, Santos M, Miyamura RA, Duarte-Franco E, Rohan TE, Ferenczy A, Villa LL.... (2001) Persistent human papillomavirus infection as a predictor of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. JAMA, 286(24), 3106-14. PMID: 11754676
One the tenets of science is that hypotheses can't be proved, only disproved. But medical journals do not publish negative data, even though this is often helpful to scientists and physicians. A recent TED Talk by Ben Goldacre illustrates this point in the context of drug studies. In a bigger sense – is this really the only way to do science; to follow this one scientific method?... Read more »
Ben Goldacre. (2012) What doctors don't know about the drugs they prescribe. TED MED. info:/
Patients who sustained an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture were more likely to develop secondary meniscal injury and arthritis when compared to a matched cohort. Specifically, those that were treated nonoperatively or with delayed surgery may be more likely to develop secondary meniscal injury, develop arthritis, and be in need of a total knee replacement when compared with those patients treated with early surgery.... Read more »
Sanders, T., Kremers, H., Bryan, A., Fruth, K., Larson, D., Pareek, A., Levy, B., Stuart, M., Dahm, D., & Krych, A. (2016) Is Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Effective in Preventing Secondary Meniscal Tears and Osteoarthritis?. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(7), 1699-1707. DOI: 10.1177/0363546516634325
"The meta-analysis provided evidence for higher blood glutamate levels in ASD [autism spectrum disorder]."That was the research bottom-line reported by Zhen Zheng and colleagues  (open-access available here) who surveyed the current peer-reviewed science literature in this area and found something to see based on: "Twelve studies involving 880 participants and 446 incident cases."Drawing on the idea that glutamate is a rather important amino acid that plays a role in various biological p........ Read more »
Zheng Z, Zhu T, Qu Y, & Mu D. (2016) Blood Glutamate Levels in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PloS one, 11(7). PMID: 27390857
Everyone does it ...no, not poop, but fart. Passing gas, fuming, crop dusting, cracking a rat -- no matter what you call it -- everyone fart, but why? Researchers have published an article devoted to the review of gaseous neurotransmitters of microbial origin and their role in the human body.
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Oleskin, A., & Shenderov, B. (2016) Neuromodulatory effects and targets of the SCFAs and gasotransmitters produced by the human symbiotic microbiota. Microbial Ecology in Health . DOI: 10.3402/mehd.v27.30971
Morels and several other fungi (all members of the order Pezizales) are known to produce their mushrooms in recently burned soil, whether it's the result of a nice little campfire or an entire forest going up in smoke. The fire creates the right conditions for the fungus, which lies beneath the ground and so protected from flames and heat, to send up mushrooms. These mushrooms release spores into the environment, and the circle of life continues ever onward.In the case of morels, it's thought a ........ Read more »
Greene D, Hesketh M, & Pounden E. (2009) Emergence of morel (Morchella) and pixie cup (Geopyxis carbonaria) ascocarps in response to the intensity of forest floor combustion during a wildfire. . Mycologia, 102(4), 766-773. DOI: 10.3852/08-096
I going to assume that readers have some background knowledge about probiotics, gut bacteria, bacterial dysbiosis and coeliac disease before reading this post. I'd love to be able to give detailed descriptions of each here but fear that this would turn a short post into a much longer one...So... in a previous post titled: 'Probiotics degrading gluten peptides?' I covered the potentially important suggestion that certain types of bacteria might have the ability to breakdown (degrade) immunog........ Read more »
Caminero, A., Galipeau, H., McCarville, J., Johnston, C., Bernier, S., Russell, A., Jury, J., Herran, A., Casqueiro, J., Tye-Din, J.... (2016) Duodenal bacteria from patients with celiac disease and healthy subjects distinctly affect gluten breakdown and immunogenicity. Gastroenterology. DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2016.06.041
Male Ilyoplax pusilla crabs wave their claws in the air to attract females, but why do different-sized males spend different amounts of time waving? The answer lies in research published this year. ... Read more »
Kawano, Y., & Henmi, Y. (2016) Female preference for large waving claws in the dotillid crab Ilyoplax pusilla. Journal of Ethology. DOI: 10.1007/s10164-016-0471-y
Restiffic Foot Wrap for Restless Legs Syndrome... Read more »
Kuhn, P., Olson, D., & Sullivan, J. (2016) Targeted Pressure on Abductor Hallucis and Flexor Hallucis Brevis Muscles to Manage Moderate to Severe Primary Restless Legs Syndrome. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 116(7), 440. DOI: 10.7556/jaoa.2016.088
I know it is only a pilot study, but …. injuries in minimalist runners
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Ostermann, K., Ridpath, L., & Hanna, J. (2016) Self-Reported Minimalist Running Injury Incidence and Severity: A Pilot Study. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 116(8), 512. DOI: 10.7556/jaoa.2016.104
The fountain of youth may reside in an embryonic stem cell gene named Nanog. In a series of experiments, the gene kicked into action dormant cellular processes that are key to preventing weak bones, clogged arteries and other telltale signs of growing old. The findings also show promise in counteracting premature aging disorders such as Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.
... Read more »
Mistriotis, P., Bajpai, V., Wang, X., Rong, N., Shahini, A., Asmani, M., Liang, M., Wang, J., Lei, P., Liu, S.... (2016) NANOG Reverses the Myogenic Differentiation Potential of Senescent Stem Cells by Restoring ACTIN Filamentous Organization and SRF-Dependent Gene Expression. STEM CELLS. DOI: 10.1002/stem.2452
I very carefully approach the findings reported by Jennifer Fairthorne and colleagues  today detailing "the occurrence of hospital admissions and treatment/services for cancer in mothers of children with ASD [autism spectrum disorder] with or without ID [intellectual disability] compared with other mothers." Appreciating that families touched by autism probably have enough on their plate without additional talk about the 'big C', I do however think that this kind of r........ Read more »
Fairthorne, J., de Klerk, N., Leonard, H., & Whitehouse, A. (2016) Mothers of Children with Autism have Different Rates of Cancer According to the Presence of Intellectual Disability in Their Child. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. DOI: 10.1007/s10803-016-2847-9
Capitalizing on experimental genetic techniques, researchers have demonstrated that temporarily turning off an area of the brain changes patterns of activity across much of the remaining brain. The research suggests that alterations in the functional connectivity of the brain in humans may be used to determine the sites of pathology in complex disorders such as schizophrenia and autism.
... Read more »
Grayson, D., Bliss-Moreau, E., Machado, C., Bennett, J., Shen, K., Grant, K., Fair, D., & Amaral, D. (2016) The Rhesus Monkey Connectome Predicts Disrupted Functional Networks Resulting from Pharmacogenetic Inactivation of the Amygdala. Neuron, 91(2), 453-466. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2016.06.005
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