Zika Virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus belonging to the Flaviviridae transmitted primarily by mosquitoes (including Aedes Agypti). Although first identified in a resuscitate monkey from the forests in Uganda in the year 1947 with estimated first emergence probably in 1920, the first human case was only reported in 1964. ZIKV has been shown to be distributed Northern Africa as well as in Southeast Asia; however only a few human cases in Africa and Asia were identified until 2007, when a ZIKV outbreak ........ Read more »
Ioos S, Mallet HP, Leparc Goffart I, Gauthier V, Cardoso T, & Herida M. (2014) Current Zika virus epidemiology and recent epidemics. Medecine et maladies infectieuses, 44(7), 302-7. PMID: 25001879
Kuno G, & Chang GJ. (2007) Full-length sequencing and genomic characterization of Bagaza, Kedougou, and Zika viruses. Archives of virology, 152(4), 687-96. PMID: 17195954
Gannage M, & Münz C. (2010) MHC presentation via autophagy and how viruses escape from it. Seminars in immunopathology, 32(4), 373-81. PMID: 20857294
Yang TC, Shiu SL, Chuang PH, Lin YJ, Wan L, Lan YC, & Lin CW. (2009) Japanese encephalitis virus NS2B-NS3 protease induces caspase 3 activation and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human medulloblastoma cells. Virus research, 143(1), 77-85. PMID: 19463724
Bell TM, Field EJ, & Narang HK. (1971) Zika virus infection of the central nervous system of mice. Archiv fur die gesamte Virusforschung, 35(2), 183-93. PMID: 5002906
Tetro JA. (2016) Zika and microcephaly: Causation, correlation, or coincidence?. Microbes and infection / Institut Pasteur. PMID: 26774330
Foy BD, Kobylinski KC, Chilson Foy JL, Blitvich BJ, Travassos da Rosa A, Haddow AD, Lanciotti RS, & Tesh RB. (2011) Probable non-vector-borne transmission of Zika virus, Colorado, USA. Emerging infectious diseases, 17(5), 880-2. PMID: 21529401
Xu Z, Anderson R, & Hobman TC. (2011) The capsid-binding nucleolar helicase DDX56 is important for infectivity of West Nile virus. Journal of virology, 85(11), 5571-80. PMID: 21411523
Katoh H, Mori Y, Kambara H, Abe T, Fukuhara T, Morita E, Moriishi K, Kamitani W, & Matsuura Y. (2011) Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2 participates in the replication of Japanese encephalitis virus through an interaction with viral proteins and RNA. Journal of virology, 85(21), 10976-88. PMID: 21865391
Buckley A, & Gould EA. (1988) Detection of virus-specific antigen in the nuclei or nucleoli of cells infected with Zika or Langat virus. The Journal of general virology, 1913-20. PMID: 2841406
Westaway EG, Khromykh AA, Kenney MT, Mackenzie JM, & Jones MK. (1997) Proteins C and NS4B of the flavivirus Kunjin translocate independently into the nucleus. Virology, 234(1), 31-41. PMID: 9234944
Buckley A, Gaidamovich S, Turchinskaya A, & Gould EA. (1992) Monoclonal antibodies identify the NS5 yellow fever virus non-structural protein in the nuclei of infected cells. The Journal of general virology, 1125-30. PMID: 1534119
Yang MR, Lee SR, Oh W, Lee EW, Yeh JY, Nah JJ, Joo YS, Shin J, Lee HW, Pyo S.... (2008) West Nile virus capsid protein induces p53-mediated apoptosis via the sequestration of HDM2 to the nucleolus. Cellular microbiology, 10(1), 165-76. PMID: 17697133
Shives KD, Beatman EL, Chamanian M, O'Brien C, Hobson-Peters J, & Beckham JD. (2014) West nile virus-induced activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 supports viral growth and viral protein expression. Journal of virology, 88(16), 9458-71. PMID: 24920798
Urbanowski MD, & Hobman TC. (2013) The West Nile virus capsid protein blocks apoptosis through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent mechanism. Journal of virology, 87(2), 872-81. PMID: 23115297
Blázquez AB, Martín-Acebes MA, & Saiz JC. (2014) Amino acid substitutions in the non-structural proteins 4A or 4B modulate the induction of autophagy in West Nile virus infected cells independently of the activation of the unfolded protein response. Frontiers in microbiology, 797. PMID: 25642225
Martín-Acebes MA, & Saiz JC. (2011) A West Nile virus mutant with increased resistance to acid-induced inactivation. The Journal of general virology, 92(Pt 4), 831-40. PMID: 21228127
Martín-Acebes MA, Blázquez AB, & Saiz JC. (2015) Reconciling West Nile virus with the autophagic pathway. Autophagy, 11(5), 861-4. PMID: 25946067
Naing ZW, Scott GM, Shand A, Hamilton ST, van Zuylen WJ, Basha J, Hall B, Craig ME, & Rawlinson WD. (2016) Congenital cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy: a review of prevalence, clinical features, diagnosis and prevention. The Australian , 56(1), 9-18. PMID: 26391432
I have a friend who lost an eye to his brother. Yes, you read that correctly, his brother tried to kill him and in the process he lost his eye. I’ve told this story before, but whenever new schizophrenia research comes out I feel the need to tell it again. While he has forgiven his brother (partly because not long after, he was diagnosed as schizophrenic), he will not be able to see him again until he is released from prison. A tragedy that could’ve been avoided had he been diagnosed sooner......... Read more »
Arnedo, J., Mamah, D., Baranger, D., Harms, M., Barch, D., Svrakic, D., de Erausquin, G., Cloninger, C., & Zwir, I. (2015) Decomposition of brain diffusion imaging data uncovers latent schizophrenias with distinct patterns of white matter anisotropy. NeuroImage, 43-54. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.06.083
Finger tracing can help school-going kids in learning mathematics better.
Applied Cognitive Psychology
Learning and Instruction
Researchers from Sydney worked with 275 school-going children in the age range of 9 to 13 years. They found that tracing of mathematical points on fingers could help children in better understanding and solving the previously unknown problems of algebra and geometry. So, finger tracing of practice examples while........ Read more »
Hu, F., Ginns, P., & Bobis, J. (2015) Getting the point: Tracing worked examples enhances learning. Learning and Instruction, 85-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2014.10.002
While it may be difficult to imagine in a day and age when psychiatric medicines are advertised as a way to treat nearly every mental disorder, only 65 years ago targeted and effective psychiatric medicines were still just an unrealized aspiration. In fact, until the middle of the 20th century, the efficacy and safety of many common approaches to treating mental illness were highly questionable. For example, one method of treating schizophrenia that was common in the 1940s........ Read more »
López-Muñoz, F., Alamo, C., cuenca, E., Shen, W., Clervoy, P., & Rubio, G. (2005) History of the Discovery and Clinical Introduction of Chlorpromazine. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 17(3), 113-135. DOI: 10.1080/10401230591002002
Selfie obsession can badly affect the relationship with partner.
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking
“Selfie” is one of the latest things of our era. It is also amusing for many people. In a study, researchers from Florida State University were trying to find the effect and outcomes of selfies and their posting on Instagram. They surveyed 420 Instagram users in the age range of 18 years to 62 years.
Researchers f........ Read more »
Ridgway, J., & Clayton, R. (2016) Instagram Unfiltered: Exploring Associations of Body Image Satisfaction, Instagram #Selfie Posting, and Negative Romantic Relationship Outcomes. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 19(1), 2-7. DOI: 10.1089/cyber.2015.0433
Nearly half of HIV infected patients suffer from impaired neurocognitive function. The HIV protein transactivator of transcription (Tat) is an important contributor to HIV neuropathogenesis because it is a potent neurotoxin that continues to be produced despite treatment with antiretroviral therapy.
... Read more »
Krogh, K., Green, M., & Thayer, S. (2015) HIV-1 Tat-Induced Changes in Synaptically-Driven Network Activity Adapt During Prolonged Exposure. Current HIV Research, 12(6), 406-414. DOI: 10.2174/1570162X13666150121110402
The first post in the This Month in Blastocystis Research series in 2016 is about Blastocystis epidemiology in India (including IBS patients), views on treatment, and Blastocystis in non-human primates.... Read more »
Das R, Khalil S, Mirdha BR, Makharia GK, Dattagupta S, & Chaudhry R. (2016) Molecular Characterization and Subtyping of Blastocystis Species in Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients from North India. PloS one, 11(1). PMID: 26784888
Pandey PK, Verma P, Marathe N, Shetty S, Bavdekar A, Patole MS, Stensvold CR, & Shouche YS. (2015) Prevalence and subtype analysis of Blastocystis in healthy Indian individuals. Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases, 296-9. PMID: 25701123
Kurt Ö, Doğruman Al F, & Tanyüksel M. (2016) Eradication of Blastocystis in humans: Really necessary for all?. Parasitology international. PMID: 26780545
Zanzani SA, Gazzonis AL, Epis S, & Manfredi MT. (2016) Study of the gastrointestinal parasitic fauna of captive non-human primates (Macaca fascicularis). Parasitology research, 115(1), 307-12. PMID: 26374536
Yoshikawa H, Wu Z, Kimata I, Iseki M, Ali IK, Hossain MB, Zaman V, Haque R, & Takahashi Y. (2004) Polymerase chain reaction-based genotype classification among human Blastocystis hominis populations isolated from different countries. Parasitology research, 92(1), 22-9. PMID: 14598169
A person’s suicide can increase the chances of suicide attempt of his or her family member or friend.
Suicide is one of the most harmful things in the life of people left behind. Researchers from the University College London found that people, who have faced the suicide of a family member or friend, have 65% more chances of attempting suicide as compared to those people, who have faced the sudden death of their loved ones du........ Read more »
Pitman, A., Osborn, D., Rantell, K., & King, M. (2016) Bereavement by suicide as a risk factor for suicide attempt: a cross-sectional national UK-wide study of 3432 young bereaved adults. BMJ Open, 6(1). DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009948
We've learned this week that computers can play Go. But at least there's one human activity they will never master: neuroscience. A computer will never be a neuroscientist. Except... hang on. A new paper just out in Neuroimage describes something called The Automatic Neuroscientist. Oh.
So what is this new neuro-robot? According to its inventors, Romy Lorenz and colleagues of Imperial College London, it's a framework for using "real-time fMRI in combination with modern machine-learning te... Read more »
Lorenz R, Monti RP, Violante IR, Anagnostopoulos C, Faisal AA, Montana G, & Leech R. (2016) The automatic neuroscientist: A framework for optimizing experimental design with closed-loop real-time fMRI. NeuroImage. PMID: 26804778
"Autism has been reported in untreated patients with phenylketonuria."Indeed it has, as the paper by Sameh Khemir and colleagues  revisits something of a long known about association whereby the archetypal inborn error of metabolism that is phenylketonuria (PKU) has been linked to the presentation of autism or autistic traits .Looking at 18 participants diagnosed with PKU, Khemir et al "report their clinical, biochemical and molecular peculiarities" (authors words not mine) and h........ Read more »
Khemir S, Halayem S, Azzouz H, Siala H, Ferchichi M, Guedria A, Bedoui A, Abdelhak S, Messaoud T, Tebib N.... (2016) Autism in Phenylketonuria Patients: From Clinical Presentation to Molecular Defects. Journal of child neurology. PMID: 26759449
An international team of biologists has discovered how specialized enzymes remodel the extremely condensed genetic material in the nucleus of cells in order to control which genes can be used. It was known that the DNA in cells is wrapped around proteins in structures called nucleosomes that resemble beads on a string, which allow the genetic material to be folded and compacted into a structure called chromatin.
... Read more »
de Dieuleveult, M., Yen, K., Hmitou, I., Depaux, A., Boussouar, F., Dargham, D., Jounier, S., Humbertclaude, H., Ribierre, F., Baulard, C.... (2016) Genome-wide nucleosome specificity and function of chromatin remodellers in ES cells. Nature. DOI: 10.1038/nature16505
Think about the last time you stood squinting in front of a full-length mirror, trying to decide whether the colors in your outfit went together. Now imagine you're a reptile, and you wouldn't even understand a mirror if you saw one, but somehow you need to find a rock that matches your skin color. Otherwise you might get eaten by a bird today. Oh, and the skin color you need to match is on your back.
Certain lizards in Greece manage to pull this off every day, though how they do it is a ... Read more »
Marshall, K., Philpot, K., & Stevens, M. (2016) Microhabitat choice in island lizards enhances camouflage against avian predators. Scientific Reports, 19815. DOI: 10.1038/srep19815
Pedestrians feel safer while walking, if the streets are illuminated with white light.
Researchers from the University of Granada surveyed 275 pedestrians in “nocturnal urban environment”, i.e. participants of the study were given a test after walking in illuminated streets in a city.
Researchers were trying to know the thoughts of pedestrians about different kinds of public lights on streets, i.e. color of lig........ Read more »
Peña-García, A., Hurtado, A., & Aguilar-Luzón, M. (2015) Impact of public lighting on pedestrians’ perception of safety and well-being. Safety Science, 142-148. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssci.2015.04.009
I often blog about viruses because, well, I work on viruses. Here's a quick summary of things I've blogged about that I find absolutely mind-blowing:1. About 10% of the human genome is made of genes we inherited from viruses that had replicated in our ancestors millions of years ago. 2. Viruses evolve as their hosts evolve (The Red Queen Effect), and in fact we can retrace their evolution in parallel with that of their hosts. The same is true within a single host, enabling us to retrace the evol........ Read more »
Lee, Y., & Bieniasz, P. (2007) Reconstitution of an Infectious Human Endogenous Retrovirus. PLoS Pathogens, 3(1). DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0030010
A commentary in Nature proposes a complete overhaul of how we treat our wastewater. Among the benefits would be new energy-producing industry and reduce greenhouse gas emissions!... Read more »
Emotions can easily move down from mother to her daughter, i.e. daughters have more chances of getting from their mother a brain structure that is involved in emotion, especially depression.
Journal of Neuroscience
Researchers from University of California – San Francisco (UCSF) studied the brains of 35 families by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). They found that the corticolimbic system, a structure of the brain circuitry, can........ Read more »
Yamagata, B., Murayama, K., Black, J., Hancock, R., Mimura, M., Yang, T., Reiss, A., & Hoeft, F. (2016) Female-Specific Intergenerational Transmission Patterns of the Human Corticolimbic Circuitry. Journal of Neuroscience, 36(4), 1254-1260. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4974-14.2016
It’s a basic tenet of the reptile theory that you want to frighten your jurors to make them vote for your client in deliberation. [The ABA has put out an open-access primer on the reptile theory and you can see that here.] It is also been shown repeatedly that conservatives are more fearful than liberals, […]
The evidence is mounting: The brains of liberals and conservatives differ
Are conservatives happier than liberals? Research says: No.
Mean-spirited blog comments........ Read more »
Van de Vyver, J., Houston, D., Abrams, D., & Vasiljevic, M. (2015) Boosting Belligerence: How the July 7, 2005, London Bombings Affected Liberals Moral Foundations and Prejudice. Psychological Science. DOI: 10.1177/0956797615615584
Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome was initially described as a heritable dermatological condition based on the presence of multiple fibrofolliculomas, trichodiscomas and acrochordons in a Canadian kindred (Birt et al., 1977). Now it is known that BHD patients can also develop pulmonary cysts, with an associated risk of pneumothorax, and bilateral, multifocal renal tumours. Due to the risk of tumour development it is important that patients are diagnosed early, enabling them to access regular ........ Read more »
People who score highly in the Dark Triad personality traits – narcissism, psychopathy and Machiavellianism – are vain, selfish, callous and manipulative. They're not the kind of people you want to spend much time with. This raises the obvious question – to put it bluntly, why over evolutionary timescales haven't these people died out? One possibility is that their traits actually confer short-term advantages in the mating game. Dark Triad people are obnoxious once you get to know them, su........ Read more »
Jauk, E., Neubauer, A., Mairunteregger, T., Pemp, S., Sieber, K., & Rauthmann, J. (2016) How Alluring Are Dark Personalities? The Dark Triad and Attractiveness in Speed Dating. European Journal of Personality. DOI: 10.1002/per.2040
I don't enjoy talking about mortality and autism on this blog but once again I'm drawn to discuss this important topic based on some recent findings published by Diana Schendel and colleagues . I say these are important findings on the basis of how researchers took into account the possible role played by psychiatric and neurological comorbidity occurring alongside autism when it comes to the quite alarming mortality statistics.Drawing on the findings reported in their paper and an interview ........ Read more »
Schendel, D., Overgaard, M., Christensen, J., Hjort, L., Jørgensen, M., Vestergaard, M., & Parner, E. (2016) Association of Psychiatric and Neurologic Comorbidity With Mortality Among Persons With Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Danish Population. JAMA Pediatrics, 1. DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.3935
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