"Schizophrenia confers a high endogenous risk for diabetes, and the risk is further increased by both first-generation and second-generation antipsychotics."So concluded Anto Rajkumar and colleagues  who relied on participant data in the thousands derived from several of those very helpful Scandinavian population registries (this time in Denmark) to add some further science to the idea that psychiatric diagnoses like schizophrenia seem to carry an elevated risk for all-manner of somatic ........ Read more »
Rajkumar AP, Horsdal HT, Wimberley T, Cohen D, Mors O, Børglum AD, & Gasse C. (2017) Endogenous and Antipsychotic-Related Risks for Diabetes Mellitus in Young People With Schizophrenia: A Danish Population-Based Cohort Study. The American journal of psychiatry. PMID: 28103712
I was intrigued to read the findings reported by Natchaya Vanwong and colleagues  talking about the presence of hyperuricemia - an excess of uric acid in the blood - in their cohort of children and young adults diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Intrigued not only because the authors discuss how the use of the atypical antipsychotic risperidone might *correlate* with elevations of uric acid but also how: "Hyperuricemia was present in 44.70% of risperidone-naïve patients w........ Read more »
Vanwong N, Srisawasdi P, Ngamsamut N, Nuntamool N, Puangpetch A, Chamkrachangpada B, Hongkaew Y, Limsila P, Kittitharaphan W, & Sukasem C. (2017) Hyperuricemia in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder Treated with Risperidone: The Risk Factors for Metabolic Adverse Effects. Frontiers in pharmacology, 527. PMID: 28105014
Preprints – versions of academic articles that have not yet been formally peer-reviewed before publication – are gaining acceptance in the academic world. They deliver open access as well as speedy publication, and their decades old success in physics has spurred on their spread in other disciplines. The development of preprints is accelerating; important funding agencies are in support of them, and also SciELO is planning to set up a preprint server for authors in Latin America and the Glob........ Read more »
Helena Cousijn,, Amye Kenall,, Emma Ganley,, Melissa Harrison,, David Kernohan,, Fiona Murphy,, Patrick Polischuk,, Maryann Martone,, & Timothy Clark. (2017) A Data Citation Roadmap for Scientific Publishers. bioRχiv. DOI: 10.1101/100784
CHAWLA, D.S. (2017) When a preprint becomes the final paper. Nature. info:/
MANUSCRITO (Vol. 39.1) brings some new original contributions to the philosophy of language, philosophy of mathematics and philosophical logic. It contains articles by specialists from Latin America and Europe on a variety of issues currently discussed in the literature, and represents a substantial contribution to the contemporary philosophical debate. … Read More →... Read more »
Hiller, F. (2016) How to (dis)solve Nagel's paradox about moral luck and responsibility. Manuscrito, 39(1), 5-32. DOI: 10.1590/0100-6045.2016.V39N1.FRH
Disinformation is everywhere you turn these days, so we need good tools to debunk those “alternative facts”. Last year we wrote about a strategy to combat distrust of science by using the concept of the “gateway belief”. While that paper received criticism from a well-known law professor, over at the Cultural Cognition blog, the same […]... Read more »
van der Linden, S., Leiserowitz, A., Rosenthal, S., & Maibach, E. (2017) Inoculating the Public against Misinformation about Climate Change. Global Challenges, 1600008. DOI: 10.1002/gch2.201600008
Overtrained athletes have abnormal inflammatory and anabolic responses to exercise, indicating that their body is not responding to exercise the way that it should.... Read more »
Joro, R., Uusitalo, A., DeRuisseau, K., & Atalay, M. (2016) Changes in cytokines, leptin, and IGF-1 levels in overtrained athletes during a prolonged recovery phase: A case-control study. Journal of Sports Sciences, 1-8. DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2016.1266379
"This study provides the first clear evidence of a reduction over time in the behavioral severity of individuals diagnosed with Autistic Disorder during a period of stability in diagnostic criteria."So said the study findings reported by Andrew Whitehouse and colleagues  (a man not afraid to make waves when it comes to thinking about autism or about approaches to intervention) looking at "whether there were changes over time in the qualitative and quantitative phenotype of individuals wh........ Read more »
Whitehouse AJ, Cooper MN, Bebbington K, Alvares G, Lin A, Wray J, & Glasson EJ. (2017) Evidence of a reduction over time in the behavioral severity of autistic disorder diagnoses. Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism Research. PMID: 28102641
A new paper challenges a decades-old theory in neuroscience: Split brain: divided perception but undivided consciousness
According to the famous work of Roger Sperry and Michael Gazzaniga, "split brain" patients seem to experience a split in consciousness: the left and the right side of their brain can independently become aware of, and respond, to stimuli. Split brain patients are those who underwent surgery to sever the corpus callosum, the nerve tract connecting the two hemispheres of ... Read more »
Pinto Y, Neville DA, Otten M, Corballis PM, Lamme VA, de Haan EH, Foschi N, & Fabri M. (2017) Split brain: divided perception but undivided consciousness. Brain : a journal of neurology. PMID: 28122878
The phenomena of emission of radiation by the Sun, which are known as type II and type III solar radio bursts, have been known and investigated for more than sixty years. The bursts of radiation occur at a frequency corresponding to the plasma frequency at the source region, and harmonics [...]... Read more »
Ziebell, L., Petruzzellis, L., Yoon, P., Gaelzer, R., & Pavan, J. (2016) PLASMA EMISSION BY COUNTER-STREAMING ELECTRON BEAMS. The Astrophysical Journal, 818(1), 61. DOI: 10.3847/0004-637X/818/1/61
"Our findings showing an increase in peripheral concentrations of S100B and TNF-α provide limited support to the hypothesis about the roles of altered immune function and S100B in autism spectrum disorder (ASD)."So said the findings reported by Selin Aktan Guloksuz and colleagues  (open-access available here) continuing some discussions a few years back on a possible role for S100B in relation to at least some autism (see here).S100B - S100 calcium-binding protein B - is a compound invo........ Read more »
Guloksuz SA, Abali O, Aktas Cetin E, Bilgic Gazioglu S, Deniz G, Yildirim A, Kawikova I, Guloksuz S, & Leckman JF. (2017) Elevated plasma concentrations of S100 calcium-binding protein B and tumor necrosis factor alpha in children with autism spectrum disorders. Revista brasileira de psiquiatria (Sao Paulo, Brazil : 1999). PMID: 28099628
by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room
In 2015, we wrote a one of our combination (“tidbit”) posts that included a bit of information on how extended eye contact can cause hallucinations. As it turns out, it also makes it hard to think (which seems reasonable if you are having hallucinations). The researchers we are covering today say that maintaining eye contact […]... Read more »
Kajimura, S., & Nomura, M. (2016) When we cannot speak: Eye contact disrupts resources available to cognitive control processes during verb generation. Cognition, 352-357. DOI: 10.1016/j.cognition.2016.10.002
"There is a high frequency of ADHD [attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder] symptoms in patients with binge eating/purging eating disorders that motivates further studies."That was the conclusion reached in the study by Nils Erik Svedlund and colleagues  (open-access) who, among other things, set out to "explore the prevalence and types of self-reported ADHD symptoms in a large, unselected group of ED [eating disorder] patients assessed in a specialized ED clinic." ........ Read more »
Svedlund, N., Norring, C., Ginsberg, Y., & von Hausswolff-Juhlin, Y. (2017) Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among adult eating disorder patients. BMC Psychiatry, 17(1). DOI: 10.1186/s12888-016-1093-1
It’s natural to feel we have a deep understanding of the world. Unfortunately, we most often don’t. On the whole, we tend to think we understand how things work in much more detail than we actually do. Scientists continue to show us just how complex the world really is. And the devices we build are […]
Check out Want a Deep Understanding? First, Know How Little You Know, an original post on Thinker Academy.
... Read more »
Keil FC. (2003) Folkscience: coarse interpretations of a complex reality. Trends in cognitive sciences, 7(8), 368-373. PMID: 12907233
Well we took a bit of a break these past couple of weeks, but we are back for the new year! Welcome to the Prophage blog 2017! The year has actually been off to a good start, with a lot of interesting papers being published this January. This week I want to kick things off by covering a very cool 2017 study by Erez et al that described an new and interesting mechanism by which bacteriophages communicate using...... Read more »
Erez, Z., Steinberger-Levy, I., Shamir, M., Doron, S., Stokar-Avihail, A., Peleg, Y., Melamed, S., Leavitt, A., Savidor, A., Albeck, S.... (2017) Communication between viruses guides lysis–lysogeny decisions. Nature, 541(7638), 488-493. DOI: 10.1038/nature21049
RCT of traditional running shoes vs minimalist running shoes... Read more »
Fuller, J., Thewlis, D., Buckley, J., Brown, N., Hamill, J., & Tsiros, M. (2017) Body Mass and Weekly Training Distance Influence the Pain and Injuries Experienced by Runners Using Minimalist Shoes. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 2147483647. DOI: 10.1177/0363546516682497
President Trump this week repeated an assertion he made shortly after his election: that millions of ballots cast illegally by undocumented immigrants cost him the popular vote. If true, this would suggest the wholesale corruption of American democracy.
Not to worry: As far as anyone knows, the president’s assertion is akin to saying that millions of unicorns also voted illegally.
- In a
... Read more »
Preller, K., Herdener, M., Pokorny, T., Planzer, A., Kraehenmann, R., Stämpfli, P., Liechti, M., Seifritz, E., & Vollenweider, F. (2017) The Fabric of Meaning and Subjective Effects in LSD-Induced States Depend on Serotonin 2A Receptor Activation. Current Biology. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2016.12.030
Wacker, D., Wang, S., McCorvy, J., Betz, R., Venkatakrishnan, A., Levit, A., Lansu, K., Schools, Z., Che, T., Nichols, D.... (2017) Crystal Structure of an LSD-Bound Human Serotonin Receptor. Cell, 168(3), 377-2147483647. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2016.12.033
Continuing the theme of blogging outside of the core material typically included on this site, I couldn't resist a mention of the 'head-to-head' debate talked about in the article by Matthew Kurien and colleagues  published in the British Medical Journal (BMJ).As per the title of this post, the name of the game was gluten-free products being available on prescription here in Blighty, and in particular, the prescribing of gluten-free products to patients diagnosed with coeliac disease. Th........ Read more »
Kurien M, Sleet S, Sanders DS, & Cave J. (2017) Should gluten-free foods be available on prescription?. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). PMID: 28073799
When we're feeling very tired, we sometimes remark that we're "half-asleep". But is this more than just a figure of speech? A new paper suggests that parts of our brain may actually 'fall asleep' even while we're still awake.
According to researchers Jeremy D. Slater and colleagues of the University of Texas, "local sleep" occurs throughout the human brain, with each brain region passing into and out of a sleep-like state over time. What's more, local sleep becomes more and more common in... Read more »
Slater JD, Chelaru MI, Hansen BJ, Beaman C, Kalamangalam G, Tandon N, & Dragoi V. (2017) Focal Changes to Human Electrocorticography With Drowsiness: A Novel Measure of Local Sleep. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. PMID: 28121257
uring the current Zika Virus (ZIKV) outbreaks in the Americas, an increased number of cognitive malformations including but not limited to microcephaly in foetuses and neonates of mothers who had been infected with ZIKV during pregnancy, lead to the conclusion that ZIKV might be neuroteratogenic, a hypothesis that has been supported by findings that various ZIKV strains –including isolates from Asia such ZIKV SZ 01, ZIKV FSS13025 and H/PF/2013 as well as isolates from the Americas such as........ Read more »
van den Pol AN, Mao G, Yang Y, Ornaghi S, & Davis JN. (2017) Zika virus targeting in the developing brain. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. PMID: 28123079
Li H, Saucedo-Cuevas L, Regla-Nava JA, Chai G, Sheets N, Tang W, Terskikh AV, Shresta S, & Gleeson JG. (2016) Zika Virus Infects Neural Progenitors in the Adult Mouse Brain and Alters Proliferation. Cell stem cell, 19(5), 593-598. PMID: 27545505
Tang H, Hammack C, Ogden SC, Wen Z, Qian X, Li Y, Yao B, Shin J, Zhang F, Lee EM.... (2016) Zika Virus Infects Human Cortical Neural Progenitors and Attenuates Their Growth. Cell stem cell, 18(5), 587-90. PMID: 26952870
Garcez PP, Nascimento JM, de Vasconcelos JM, Madeiro da Costa R, Delvecchio R, Trindade P, Loiola EC, Higa LM, Cassoli JS, Vitória G.... (2017) Zika virus disrupts molecular fingerprinting of human neurospheres. Scientific reports, 40780. PMID: 28112162
Gabriel, E., Ramani, A., Karow, U., Gottardo, M., Natarajan, K., Gooi, L., Goranci-Buzhala, G., Krut, O., Peters, F., Nikolic, M.... (2017) Recent Zika Virus Isolates Induce Premature Differentiation of Neural Progenitors in Human Brain Organoids. Cell Stem Cell. DOI: 10.1016/j.stem.2016.12.005
Ghouzzi VE, Bianchi FT, Molineris I, Mounce BC, Berto GE, Rak M, Lebon S, Aubry L, Tocco C, Gai M.... (2017) ZIKA virus elicits P53 activation and genotoxic stress in human neural progenitors similar to mutations involved in severe forms of genetic microcephaly and p53. Cell death , 8(1). PMID: 28102842
Caldon CE, & Musgrove EA. (2010) Distinct and redundant functions of cyclin E1 and cyclin E2 in development and cancer. Cell division, 2. PMID: 20180967
Gromley A, Jurczyk A, Sillibourne J, Halilovic E, Mogensen M, Groisman I, Blomberg M, & Doxsey S. (2003) A novel human protein of the maternal centriole is required for the final stages of cytokinesis and entry into S phase. The Journal of cell biology, 161(3), 535-45. PMID: 12732615
Shimada M, Matsuzaki F, Kato A, Kobayashi J, Matsumoto T, & Komatsu K. (2016) Induction of Excess Centrosomes in Neural Progenitor Cells during the Development of Radiation-Induced Microcephaly. PloS one, 11(7). PMID: 27367050
Meitinger F, Anzola JV, Kaulich M, Richardson A, Stender JD, Benner C, Glass CK, Dowdy SF, Desai A, Shiau AK.... (2016) 53BP1 and USP28 mediate p53 activation and G1 arrest after centrosome loss or extended mitotic duration. The Journal of cell biology, 214(2), 155-66. PMID: 27432897
Liu H, Gong M, French BA, Liao G, Li J, Tillman B, & French SW. (2015) Aberrant modulation of the BRCA1 and G1/S cell cycle pathways in alcoholic hepatitis patients with Mallory Denk Bodies revealed by RNA sequencing. Oncotarget, 6(40), 42491-503. PMID: 26623723
Souza BS, Sampaio GL, Pereira CS, Campos GS, Sardi SI, Freitas LA, Figueira CP, Paredes BD, Nonaka CK, Azevedo CM.... (2016) Zika virus infection induces mitosis abnormalities and apoptotic cell death of human neural progenitor cells. Scientific reports, 39775. PMID: 28008958
But we still don’t recommend it in polite company (aka, the courtroom)! An international team of researchers (from the Netherlands, Hong Kong, the United States and the United Kingdom) have just published an article examining two perspectives on profanity and honesty. The researchers say that, on one hand, profanity is considered a violation of social […]... Read more »
Feldman, G., Lian, H., Kosinski, M., & Stillwell, D. (2017) Frankly, We Do Give a Damn: The relationship between profanity and honesty. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2147483647. DOI: 10.1177/1948550616681055
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