These days it's hard to avoid the message that thin is best. From advertising billboards to the Oscar red carpet, we are inundated with images of successful ultra-thin women.Past research has already shown that this ideal is filtering through to our children, even preschoolers. But before now, there has been little study of just how early pro-thin bias (and prejudice against fat people) appears, and how it develops with age.Jennifer Harriger tested 102 girls from the South Western US, aged between three and five. She first asked the girls to consider 12 adjectives (six positive and six negative, including nice, smart, mean stupid) and to allocate each one to whichever of three female figures they felt the adjective was most suited. The precise wording was "Point to the girl that you think is/has ...". Crucially, one of the female figures was very thin, one was very fat, and the other average, with no other differences between them. Three-year-olds, four-year-olds and five-year-olds all tended to allocate more negative adjectives to the fat figure and more positive adjectives to the thin figure.Another test involved the children looking at nine figures (three fat, three average and three thin) and choosing their first three preferences for playmates, and finally to choose their best friend from the selection. Children at all ages tended to choose a thin figure for their first choice, a thin or average for the second choice, with no bias in their third choice. Best friend choices tended to be thin.Age differences were few, but there was some evidence that three-year-olds were showing more of a bias for thinness, as opposed to a bias against fat people, with fat prejudice increasing with age. For example, only the youngest girls allocated more negative adjectives to average and fat figures than to the thin figures, consistent with their believing "thin is good" rather than "fat is bad".The research needs to be replicated in other countries, with boys, and with even younger children. Harriger also noted that it would be interesting to look at the influence of children's own weight and the beliefs of their parents, siblings and peers. For now, she said her findings illustrated "an increasing preference for thinness and intolerance for fatness in preschool age girls ..." and that the promotion of size acceptance "must begin even earlier than we once believed."_________________________________ Harriger, J. (2014). Age Differences in Body Size Stereotyping in a Sample of Preschool Girls Eating Disorders, 23 (2), 177-190 DOI: 10.1080/10640266.2014.964610 --further reading--Video protects girls from the negative effects of looking at ultra-thin modelsFive-year-old girls who want to be thinNine-month-olds prefer looking at unattractive (read: normal) male bodiesHow do women and girls feel when they see sexualised or sporty images of female athletes?Magazine reports on eating disorders are superficial and misleadingPost written by Christian Jarrett (@psych_writer) for the BPS Research Digest.
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Harriger, J. (2014) Age Differences in Body Size Stereotyping in a Sample of Preschool Girls. Eating Disorders, 23(2), 177-190. DOI: 10.1080/10640266.2014.964610
"Hypovitaminosis D is very frequent in DS [Down's syndrome] subjects, in particular in presence of obesity and autoimmune diseases."That was the conclusion reached in the study by Stefano Stagi and colleagues  (open-access here) based on an analysis of their small participant group diagnosed with Down's syndrome looking at vitamin D status among other things. The comment about obesity potentially exacerbating vitamin D deficiency ties in well with another paper independently published around the same time suggesting that obesity may very well impact on vitamin D status .The Stagi paper is open-access so no need for too many details from me. Researchers looked at "calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25(OH)D concentrations, and calcium and 25(OH)D dietary intakes" in 31 children and young adults with DS compared with "99 age- and sex-matched" controls. They reported that as a group, those with DS "showed reduced 25(OH)D levels compared to controls" and significantly higher levels of PTH. Daily supplementation with 400 IU [international units] of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) did bring levels up over the course of about a year in those with DS but again, as a group, levels were still reduced compared to controls.What's more to say? Well, we add these results to the growing number of conditions where vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency has been described (see here). As per the discussions about vitamin D and autism, one cannot rule out the issue of comorbidity as playing a role in the Stagi results, particularly if one assumes that DS might confer something of an elevated risk of something like depression . Indeed, the growing research base talking about an increased expression of autism / autistic traits in those with DS is perhaps deserving of a mention too.In terms of the more typical reasons why one might show issues with the availability of vitamin D - lack of sunshine and/or dietary inadequacy - these are factors that need to be considered. Stagi et al did note that physical activity levels were reported to be lower in the DS group but this needs quite a bit more analysis, based as it was on "questions regarding each child's and adolescent's average number of daily outdoor hours across each season and a prospective daily time-activity diary." Think back to my post on how sitting time might be more objectively measured (see here).The idea that autoimmune conditions might have also impacted on vitamin D levels in DS is intriguing. Not so long ago I addressed the topic of Down Syndrome Disintegrative Disorder (see here) and the more general association of autoimmune issues with DS in mind. That and my recent post on the Skaaby paper  (see here) talking about a "statistically significant inverse associations between vitamin D status and development of any autoimmune disease", and one has a recipe for quite a bit more scientific inquiry into this area.And to close: Franz Ferdinand with Darts Of Pleasure.---------- Stagi S. et al. Determinants of vitamin d levels in children and adolescents with down syndrome. Int J Endocrinol. 2015;2015:896758. Pereira-Santos M. et al. Obesity and vitamin D deficiency: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2015 Feb 17. Walker JC. et al. Depression in Down syndrome: a review of the literature. Res Dev Disabil. 2011 Sep-Oct;32(5):1432-40. Skaaby T. et al. Prospective population-based study of the association between vitamin D status and incidence of autoimmune disease. Endocrine. 2015 Feb 11.----------Stagi S, Lapi E, Romano S, Bargiacchi S, Brambilla A, Giglio S, Seminara S, & de Martino M (2015). Determinants of vitamin d levels in children and adolescents with down syndrome. International journal of endocrinology, 2015 PMID: 25685147... Read more »
Stagi S, Lapi E, Romano S, Bargiacchi S, Brambilla A, Giglio S, Seminara S, & de Martino M. (2015) Determinants of vitamin d levels in children and adolescents with down syndrome. International journal of endocrinology, 896758. PMID: 25685147
According to a new paper, one of neuroscience's most famous case-studies came about as a result of a serious medical blunder.
Henry Molaison (1926 - 2008), better known as HM, was an American man who developed a dramatic form of amnesia after receiving surgery that removed part of the temporal lobes of his brain. The 1953 operation was intended to treat HM's epilepsy, but it had the side effect of leaving him unable to form new memories.
The consequences of HM's surgery are well known ... Read more »
Mauguière F, & Corkin S. (2015) H.M. never again! An analysis of H.M.'s epilepsy and treatment. Revue neurologique. PMID: 25726355
Antibodies defend the body against bacterial, viral, and other invaders. But sometimes the body makes antibodies that attack healthy cells. In these cases, autoimmune disorders develop. Immune abnormalities in patients with psychosis have been recognized for over a century, but it has been only relatively recently that scientists have identified specific immune mechanisms that seem to directly produce symptoms of psychosis, including hallucinations and delusions. In other words, some forms of psychoses might just be an autoimmune disorder.... Read more »
Pathmanandavel, K., Starling, J., Merheb, V., Ramanathan, S., Sinmaz, N., Dale, R., & Brilot, F. (2015) Antibodies to Surface Dopamine-2 Receptor and N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor in the First Episode of Acute Psychosis in Children. Biological Psychiatry, 77(6), 537-547. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2014.07.014
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Avinash Pandy, the study author, is a high school student who conducted this study under the guidance of his mentor, Niteesh K. Choudhry., M.D., Ph.D., executive director of the Center for Healthcare Delivery Sciences, Brigham and Women’s … Continue reading →... Read more »
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:, & Avinash Pandy. (2015) Free Personalized Text Messages Remind Patients To Take Medications. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
Daniella Kupor and her colleagues at Stanford University have recently published the paper "Anticipating Divine Protection? Reminders of God Can Increase Nonmoral Risk Taking" which takes a new look at the link between invoking the name of God and risky behaviors. The researchers hypothesized that reminders of God may have opposite effects on varying types of risk-taking behavior. For example, risk-taking behavior that is deemed ‘immoral' such as taking sexual risks or cheating may be suppressed by invoking God, whereas taking non-moral risks, such as making risky investments or sky-diving, might be increased because reminders of God provide a sense of security. According to Kupor and colleagues, it is important to classify the type of risky behavior in relation to how society perceives God's approval or disapproval of the behavior. The researchers conducted a variety of experiments to test this hypothesis using online study participants.
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Kupor DM, Laurin K, & Levav J. (2015) Anticipating Divine Protection? Reminders of God Can Increase Nonmoral Risk Taking. Psychological Science. PMID: 25717040
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: E. Patchen Dellinger, M.D. Professor of Surgery University of Washington Seattle, Washington Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Dellinger: We know from previous large studies that use of checklists … Continue reading →... Read more »
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:, E. Patchen Dellinger, M.D., Professor of Surgery, University of Washington, & Seattle, Washingto. (2015) Effective Surgical Checklists Require Culture of Safety. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lorena Espinoza Center for Disease Control MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Men who have sex with men remain the risk group most severely affected by HIV in the … Continue reading →... Read more »
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:, Lorena Espinoza, & Center for Disease Control. (2015) Troubling Increase In HIV Infections In MSM. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Cyprian Wejnert Center For Disease Control MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Cyprian Wejnert: Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain the risk group most severely affected by HIV … Continue reading →... Read more »
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:, & Cyprian Wejner. (2015) Black MSM More Likely To Be HIV Positive. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Ndidi Nwangwu-Ike Center Disease Control MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: CDC data has shown encouraging signs of a decrease in new HIV infections among black women in … Continue reading →... Read more »
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:, & Dr. Ndidi Nwangwu-Ike. (2015) African American Women Less Likely To Achieve HIV Viral Suppression. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
Matt Stonie recently consumed 182 slices of bacon in just 5 minutes, breaking a competitive eating record. How is this physiologically possible?... Read more »
There is a mistaken cultural assumption, say Marissa Harrison and her colleagues, that women are, by their nature, incapable of being serial killers – defined here as murderers of three or more victims, spaced out with at least a week between killings.This misconception, the psychologists warn, is a "deadly mistake". They point out that one in six serial killers are female. Their crimes tend to go undetected for longer than their male counterparts, likely in part because "our culture is in denial of women's proclivity for aggression."Harrison and her team have profiled 64 US female serial killers active between the years 1821 to 2008. The researchers used the murderpedia.org website to identify these killers and they verified the cases they found using reputable news sources.The female serial killers had murdered between them at least 331 victims (making an average of 6 victims each). Their victims are of both sexes, but disproportionately male. The women had an average of age of 32 at the time of their first killing, and poisoning was the most common method. However, between them, the women used a range of murderous techniques, as the researchers explained:"Contrary to preconceived notions about women being incapable of these extreme crimes, the women in our study poisoned, smothered, burned, choked, shot, bludgeoned, and shot newborns, children, elderly, and ill people as well as healthy adults; most often those who knew and likely trusted them."Many of the homicidal women had stereotypically female professions, including being nurses and baby-sitters. They tended to be above average in physical attractiveness, which may have helped to engender trust in their victims.As to motives, the most common was "hedonistic", a category in forensic psychology that refers to killing for financial gain, lust or thrill, with nearly half the sample fitting this category. The next most common motive was "power-seeking", which includes killing people in one's care.The researchers urge caution regarding the factors that contributed to these women becoming serial killers. Apart from anything else, the historical records are incomplete and the absence of information does not mean that a given factor was not contributory. Nonetheless, Harrison and her team highlight several noticeable patterns in the data: a greater proportion of the women, as compared with the general population, had: a history of having been physically or sexually abused; drug or alcohol problems; and a diagnosis or signs of mental illness.Quotes from some of the killers hint at their psychopathological thinking:"They [the children] bothered me, so I decided to kill them.""I like to attend funerals. I'm happy when someone is dying.""That is my ambition, to have killed more people – more helpless people – than any man or woman who has ever lived."A striking contrast with male serial killers is the relative absence of sexual violence and deviance. Two exceptions were a female serial killer who was a rapist, and another who reportedly barked like a dog during sex. But overall, the researchers highlighted how the women in their study primarily killed for resources, while their male counterparts kill for sex. This follows evolutionary theory, Harrison and her co-authors explained, in the sense that men are said to be motivated more by seeking multiple sexual opportunities, while women are motivated to find a committed partner with sufficient resources. "However," they added, "although an evolutionary framework can offer understanding, we stress that these heinous acts are a vicious extension of unconscious drives and are not therefore 'normal' or 'excused' ... ".The new analysis points to a worrying trend: a 150 per cent increase in the number of reported cases of female serial killers since 1975. This study has obvious limitations, most obviously the reliance on historical records and news reports, and its exclusive focus on US killers. However, it makes a valuable contribution to a neglected topic.The researchers concluded: "Increasing our understanding of serial killers may minimise the number of victims potentially lost in the future while maximising the effectiveness of interventions to prevent vulnerable individuals from taking a killing path."_________________________________ Harrison, M., Murphy, E., Ho, L., Bowers, T., & Flaherty, C. (2015). Female serial killers in the United States: means, motives, and makings The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 1-24 DOI: 10.1080/14789949.2015.1007516 Post written by Christian Jarrett (@psych_writer) for the BPS Research Digest.
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Harrison, M., Murphy, E., Ho, L., Bowers, T., & Flaherty, C. (2015) Female serial killers in the United States: means, motives, and makings. The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry , 1-24. DOI: 10.1080/14789949.2015.1007516
JAMA Psychiatry published a number of interesting articles recently, some of which have grabbed media headlines. "Autism is largely down to genes, twin study suggests" went the BBC headline covering the paper by Emma Colvert and colleagues  who, based on an analysis of twin pairs as part of TEDS (Twins Early Development Study), concluded that: "The liability to ASD [autism spectrum disorder] and a more broadly defined high-level autism trait phenotype in this large population-based twin sample derives primarily from additive genetic and, to a lesser extent, nonshared environmental effects." The paper from Tiziano Pramparo and colleagues  has so far garnered rather less media attention with their "proof-of-principle study" suggesting that "genomic biomarkers with very good sensitivity and specificity for boys with ASD in general pediatric settings can be identified." Said results were based on examination of "leukocyte RNA expression levels" and found some interesting differences between children diagnosed with autism vs. asymptomatic controls including functions relevant to the immune system and inflammatory processes among other things. Go figure.The Colvert paper covers one of the more heated debates when it comes to autism: the relative contributions of genetics vs. environment to autism. I've covered this issues quite a bit on this blog, perhaps most recently when discussing the paper from Sven Sandin and colleagues  and their results leading to press releases stating that: "Environment as important as genes in autism, study finds." The Colvert results seem to have something slightly different to say, following a well trodden path in autism research of results and counter-results swinging pendulum style (see here).I don't want to trawl over every detail of the Colvert study but it strikes me that there are a few important things to say about the findings within the context of both genes vs. environment and also the growing move towards the plural 'autisms'. First, is their reliance on looking at twin pairs and in particular, some who were monozygotic (MZ) twins and others who were dizygotic (DZ) combined with an analysis of assessed autistic traits in said twins. In effect, authors were comparing twin pairs - MZ vs. DZ - for how well they matched in autism symptoms terms as a function of their degree of genetic similarity. They didn't actually look at the genes potentially involved in autism in this study, which as we have found out from the paper by Ryan Yuen and colleagues , are likely to be pretty complex and containing "substantial genetic heterogeneity" even within sibling pairs (see here for my take on this). And yes, I know 'siblings' are not necessarily the same as 'twins'...There are also some implicit statements in the study of twins. We assume that they are genetically identical (at least MZ twins). Unfortunately, more and more science is realising that sharing the same genes is not necessarily the same as sharing the same gene functions. One word: epigenetics, and as we've seen even with autism in mind, how issues such as DNA methylation mean twins (identical twins) are not necessarily as identical as you might imagine (see here) and how this might explain at least some of the missing heritability noted in such studies. The value-added bit to the study by Chloe Wong and colleagues  looking at the methylome with autism in mind was that they too relied on data from TEDS."The novel aspect of this study was the inclusion of twins regardless of whether they had a clinical diagnosis. This enabled us to get a more accurate picture of how influential a child’s environmental experiences and their genetic makeup is on ASD, as well as on subtler expressions of autistic skills and behaviours." A quote from one of the study authors also gives us something to ponder. I assume the 'subtler expressions' means the broader autism phenotype (BAP) and the idea that crossing the diagnostic threshold of autism (or ASD) means crossing a blurred barrier where the traits of autism are also present in milder, less pathological forms not necessarily meeting the diagnostic criteria that we've assigned for the condition. Whilst this is a strength of the Colvert paper over other research in this area, it does rather mean that the spotlight is on the 'trait phenotype' of autism. And 'fractionable' autistic traits have been a focus of other research by some of the authors  on the Colvert paper.I'd also like to think that although the Colvert results are important from the point of view that there are potentially shared genes (or even shared epigenomic issues) at work when it comes to autism / autistic traits, this does not mean that such genes are on their own 'causative' of autism. "Some parents are concerned whether things like high pollution might be causing autism” is another quote from another of the study authors who seems to be downplaying the possibility that such environmental factors might play some hand in some autism. I'm similarly guarded about the idea that something like air pollution might 'correlate' with some autism but as we've discovered over recent years, one doesn't talk about environment without also mentioning the idea of genetic 'fragility' to certain environmental issues (see here) based on the preliminary findings from Heather Volk and colleagues  for example. That also genes which might predispose to autism may also predispose to other conditions/states as per the Pramparo paper talking about immune function and inflammatory processes is also worth reiterating.I guess what I'm trying to say is that of course genes are going to be involved in autism. Even those cases of autism where onset is linked to something like infection (see here and see here) or has a regressive element to it (see here), there has to be some genetic involvement. Genes however, don't typically act in isolation from either maturation or the environment they find themselves in. They're dynamic, switching on and off in various tissues in response to all-manner of different variables. Structural genetics, that is looking for the presence of mutations or different variants, is still important to autism research (as per the BCKDK gene work) of that there is no doubt, although even there ... Read more »
Colvert, E., Tick, B., McEwen, F., Stewart, C., Curran, S., Woodhouse, E., Gillan, N., Hallett, V., Lietz, S., Garnett, T.... (2015) Heritability of Autism Spectrum Disorder in a UK Population-Based Twin Sample. JAMA Psychiatry. DOI: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.3028
Pramparo, T., Pierce, K., Lombardo, M., Carter Barnes, C., Marinero, S., Ahrens-Barbeau, C., Murray, S., Lopez, L., Xu, R., & Courchesne, E. (2015) Prediction of Autism by Translation and Immune/Inflammation Coexpressed Genes in Toddlers From Pediatric Community Practices. JAMA Psychiatry. DOI: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.3008
The paper from José Guevara-Campos and colleagues  (open-access can be downloaded here) is fodder for today's short post, and a topic that has not been seen on this blog for quite a while: hyperlactacidemia (elevated plasma lactate levels) and autism.Previous mentions of lactate and autism on this blog (see here and see here) were potentially pretty important; specifically, how elevated plasma lactate levels might (a) not be an unfamiliar finding for quite a few people on the autism spectrum  and (b) might provide further evidence for the involvement of mitochondria in cases of autism among other things . Mitochondria and autism, I might add, is still quite a complicated topic but a research area in the ascendancy.Guevara-Campos et al reported on case reports for "three patients diagnosed with developmental delay, ID [intellectual disability] and ASD [autism spectrum disorder], and also with a possible mitochondrial disease accompanied by an ETC [electron transport chain] deficiency accompanied by hyperlactacidemia." There are various data provided following some clinical investigations including that based on muscle biopsy data. Just as important are some of the details on 'pharmacological treatment' of said issues and the observed impact on presented symptoms. Without cherry-picking too much, carnitine, a vitamin B complex, co-enzyme Q10 and folic acid combined seemed to have quite an effect on participants, particularly on "intellectual abilities". Some of these interventions have been trialled in other conditions where mitochondria or their important processes are suspected to show involvement (see here). I say this without providing endorsement or recommendation.Appreciating that there is quite a bit more to do (experimentally) when it comes to "suspected mitochondrial involvement" specifically where autism is mentioned, and in particular, the need for quite a bit more controlled study on how such interventions might impact on symptoms in this group, I'm interested in the Guevara-Campos report. How many people on the autism spectrum their results hold true for is as yet unknown. With the growth in this area of research however, I'd be minded to suggest that we should really start directing a lot more resources to trying to answer that question if we are indeed going to start taking the plural autisms a little more seriously. Oh, and as per the sentiments of the paper by Zilberter and colleagues  there may yet be related factors which might be of "potential therapeutic significance."Music: Roots Manuva - Witness. Brilliant.---------- Guevara-Campos J. et al. Autism and Intellectual Disability Associated with Mitochondrial Disease and Hyperlactacidemia. Int J Mol Sci. 2015 Feb 11;16(2):3870-3884. Oliveira G. et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders: a population-based study. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2005 Mar;47(3):185-9. Andersen LW. et al. Etiology and therapeutic approach to elevated lactate levels. Mayo Clin Proc. 2013 Oct;88(10):1127-40. Zilberter Y. et al. A unique array of neuroprotective effects of pyruvate in neuropathology. Front. Neurosci. 2015. Feb 17.-----------Guevara-Campos J, González-Guevara L, & Cauli O (2015). Autism and Intellectual Disability Associated with Mitochondrial Disease and Hyperlactacidemia. International journal of molecular sciences, 16 (2), 3870-3884 PMID: 25679448... Read more »
Guevara-Campos J, González-Guevara L, & Cauli O. (2015) Autism and Intellectual Disability Associated with Mitochondrial Disease and Hyperlactacidemia. International journal of molecular sciences, 16(2), 3870-3884. PMID: 25679448
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Minna Johansson, PhD student Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Research Unit and Section for General Practice, Vänersborg, Sweden Medical Research: What is the background for … Continue reading →... Read more »
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:, Minna Johansson, PhD student, & Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine. (2015) Screening For Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms May Have Benefits and Harms. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marc Brisson Canada Research Chair in Mathematical Modeling and Health Economics of Infectious Disease Associate Professor, Université Laval Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Since 2007, 52 countries … Continue reading →... Read more »
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:, Marc Brisson, & Canada Research Chair in Mathematical Modeling and Health. (2015) Strong Evidence HPV Vaccination Highly Effective Outside Trial Settings. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
It might have been an accident, but for some lucky researchers accidents are a good thing. In this particular case, scientists have discovered a new way to manipulate how cells function, a finding that might help advance an experimental approach to improving public health: DNA vaccines, which could be more efficient, less expensive and easier to store than traditional vaccines.
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Gou, Y., Byun, H., Zook, A., B. Singh, G., Nash, A., Lozano, M., & Dudley, J. (2015) Retroviral vectors elevate coexpressed protein levels in trans through cap dependent translation through cap-dependent translation . Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 201420477. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1420477112
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Anita Kozyrskyj Ph.D Professor, Department of Pediatrics University of Alberta Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Prof. Kozyrskyj: Our study determined what “good” gut bacteria were present in 166 … Continue reading →... Read more »
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:, & Anita Kozyrskyj Ph.D. (2015) Infant Gut Bacteria Linked To Later Food Sensitization. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Halle C.F. Moore, M.D. Cleveland Clinic Foundation Taussig Cancer Institute Cleveland, OH 44195 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Moore: Ovarian failure is a common long-term side effect … Continue reading →... Read more »
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:, Halle C.F. Moore, M.D., & Cleveland Clinic Foundation. (2015) Goserelin Protects Ovarian Function During Breast Cancer Chemotherapy. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Joo-Yong Hahn, MD, PhD Associate Professor Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: In the Effects of … Continue reading →... Read more »
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:, & Joo-Yong Hahn, MD, PhD. (2015) Long-Term Effects Of Ischemic Post-Conditioning With PCI for STEMI. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
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