Post List

  • November 30, 2015
  • 04:45 AM

Athlete Expectation Comparison of US Athletes and European Athletes

by Darrell Thompson & Virginia Lintot in Sports Medicine Research (SMR): In the Lab & In the Field

The culture of a sport or country of origin may influence an athlete’s expectations towards sports medicine professionals during rehabilitation.... Read more »

Arvinen-Barrow M, Clement D, Hamson-Utley JJ, Kaphof C, Zakrajsek R, Lee SM, Hemmings B, Lintunen T, & Martin SB. (2015) Athletes' Expectations About Sport Injury Rehabilitation: A Cross-Cultural Study. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation. PMID: 26353160  

  • November 30, 2015
  • 02:47 AM

Health service use, autism and preventative medicine

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

Appreciating that the title of this post potentially offers the opportunity to write a long (very long) post, today I'm specifically focusing on two papers. The first by Janet Cummings and colleagues [1] discussing health service use "among youth with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD)" concluded that yes, young people with autism were more likely to experience health service use than not-autism control populations. Importantly however, was the suggestion that this group were "less likely to receive important preventive services including flu shots and other vaccinations."The second paper to bring into discussions is that from Paul Carbone and colleagues [2] who examined "the prevalence of hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) in children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD)." ACSC in case you did not click on the highlighted link, refers to chronic conditions "for which it is possible to prevent acute exacerbations and reduce the need for hospital admission through active management, such as vaccination; better self-management, disease management or case management; or lifestyle interventions."Based on data derived from a '2009 Kids' Inpatient Database' researchers concluded that hospitalisations for ACSC were quite a bit more frequent than for those with either other chronic conditions outside of autism or those without any chronic conditions at all. Indeed compared with that 'no chronic conditions at all' group, those with autism were more likely to be admitted for a variety of issues including "a mental health condition, epilepsy, constipation, pneumonia, dehydration, vaccine-preventable diseases, underweight, and nutritional deficiencies."Without over-analysing the results of these collected investigations, the primary issues presented seem to be: (a) that people diagnosed on the autism spectrum are more likely to use healthcare services than non-autism controls, and (b) although many of the 'ailments' for which treatment is sought have been previously recognised in the research and clinical literature, the idea of preventative medicine, and the potential benefits that it can bring, is still to some degree missing when looking at the wider picture of health and wellbeing with autism in mind.Preventative medicine casts a wide net in terms of what is covered. Having previously discussed important lifestyle issues such as diet and exercise when it comes to the autism spectrum on this blog (see here and see here for example) I've been particularly interested in how science can offer some solutions for issues such as getting people more physically active or recognising the value of a balanced diet (and where certain dietary extremes can eventually lead). Discussions about bowel issues in relation to autism have also been ramped up in recent years as science cottons on to what many people have been saying: functional and pathological bowel issues are over-represented when it comes to a diagnosis on the autism spectrum (see here).The associated findings that rates of "vaccine-preventable diseases" may be increased in some of the analysed cohorts with autism and/or that immunisation as part of a strategy of preventative medicine might be diminished are worrying trends. I know this area still attracts some discussion alongside more general debates about vaccines for example [3] but as part of the arsenal of initiatives to improve public and 'personal' health, one might see such findings as part of a wider issue with health inequality when it comes to autism. Indeed, if one looks to the future and the idea that autism is not generally a life-limiting condition (at least not for many), one wonders what the long-term future holds for older adults with autism in light of the potential seriousness of something like influenza for older populations (see here) for example?Music to close and Axis of Awesome talk number 1 hits...----------[1] Cummings JR. et al. Health Services Utilization Among Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2015 Nov 7.[2] Carbone PS. et al. A Comparison of Ambulatory Care Sensitive Hospitalizations Among Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder. Acad Pediatr. 2015 Nov-Dec;15(6):626-635.[3] Suryadevara M. et al. Pediatric provider vaccine hesitancy: An under-recognized obstacle to immunizing children. Vaccine. 2015 Oct 31. pii: S0264-410X(15)01552-2.----------Cummings JR, Lynch FL, Rust KC, Coleman KJ, Madden JM, Owen-Smith AA, Yau VM, Qian Y, Pearson KA, Crawford PM, Massolo ML, Quinn VP, & Croen LA (2015). Health Services Utilization Among Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of autism and developmental disorders PMID: 26547921Carbone PS, Young PC, Stoddard GJ, Wilkes J, & Trasande L (2015). A Comparison of Ambulatory Care Sensitive Hospitalizations Among Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder. Academic pediatrics, 15 (6), 626-635 PMID: 26547543... Read more »

Cummings JR, Lynch FL, Rust KC, Coleman KJ, Madden JM, Owen-Smith AA, Yau VM, Qian Y, Pearson KA, Crawford PM.... (2015) Health Services Utilization Among Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. PMID: 26547921  

  • November 30, 2015
  • 01:34 AM

Carving Up Brain Disorders

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

Neurology and Psychiatry are two distinct specialties within medicine, both of which treat disorders of the brain. It's completely uncontroversial to say that neurologists treat patients with brain disorders like Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. These two diseases produce distinct patterns of neurodegeneration that are visible on brain scans. For example, Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder caused by the loss of dopamine neurons in the midbrain.Fig. 3 (modified from Goldstein et al., 2007). Brain PET scans superimposed on MRI scans. Note decreased dopamine signal in the putamen and substantia nigra (S.N.) bilaterally in the patient. It's also uncontroversial to say that drugs like L-DOPA and invasive neurosurgical interventions like deep brain stimulation (DBS) are used to treat PD.On the other hand, some people will balk when you say that psychiatric illnesses like bipolar disorder and depression are brain disorders, and that drugs and DBS (in severe intractable cases) may be used to treat them. You can't always point to clear cut differences in the MRI or PET scans of psychiatric patients, as you can with PD (which is a particularly obvious example).The diagnostic methods used in neurology and psychiatry are quite different as well. The standard neurological exam assesses sensory and motor responses (e.g., reflexes) and basic mental status. PD has sharply defined motor symptoms including tremor, rigidity, impaired balance, and slowness of movement. There are definitely cases where the symptoms of PD should be attributed to another disease (most notably Lewy body dementia)1, and other examples where neurological diagnosis is not immediately possible. But by and large, no one questions the existence of a brain disorder.Things are different in psychiatry. Diagnosis is not based on a physical exam. Psychiatrists and psychologists give clinical interviews based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5), a handbook of mental disorders defined by a panel of experts with opinions that are not universally accepted. The update from DSM-IV to DSM-5 was highly controversial (and widely discussed). The causes of mental disorders are not only biological, but often include important social and interpersonal factors. And their manifestations can vary across cultures.Shortly before the release of DSM-5, the former director of NIMH (Dr. Tom Insel) famously dissed the new manual:The strength of each of the editions of DSM has been “reliability” – each edition has ensured that clinicians use the same terms in the same ways. The weakness is its lack of validity. Unlike our definitions of ischemic heart disease, lymphoma, or AIDS, the DSM diagnoses are based on a consensus about clusters of clinical symptoms, not any objective laboratory measure. In other words, where are the clinical tests for psychiatric disorders?For years, NIMH has been working on an alternate classification scheme, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project, which treats mental illnesses as brain disorders that should be studied according to domains of functioning (e.g., negative valence). Dimensional constructs such as acute threat (“fear”) are key, rather than categorical DSM diagnosis. RDoC has been widely discussed on this blog and elsewhere – it's the best thing since sliced bread, it's necessary but very oversold, or it's ill-advised.What does this have to do with neurology, you might ask? In 2007, Insel called for the merger of neurology and psychiatry:Just as research during the Decade of the Brain (1990-2000) forged the bridge between the mind and the brain, research in the current decade is helping us to understand mental illnesses as brain disorders. As a result, the distinction between disorders of neurology (e.g., Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases) and disorders of psychiatry (e.g., schizophrenia and depression) may turn out to be increasingly subtle. That is, the former may result from focal lesions in the brain, whereas the latter arise from abnormal activity in specific brain circuits in the absence of a detectable lesion. As we become more adept at detecting lesions that lead to abnormal function, it is even possible that the distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders will vanish, leading to a combined discipline of clinical neuroscience.Actually, Insel's view dates back to 2005 (Insel & Quirion, 2005)....2 Future training might begin with two post-graduate years of clinical neuroscience shared by the disciplines we now call neurology and psychiatry, followed by two or three years of specialty training in one of several sub-disciplines (ranging from peripheral neuropathies to public sector and transcultural psychiatry). This model recognizes that the clinical neurosciences have matured sufficiently to resemble internal medicine, with core training required prior to specializing....and was expressed earlier by Dr. Joseph P. Martin, Dean of Harvard Medical School (Martin, 2002):Neurology and psychiatry have, for much of the past century, been separated by an artificial wall created by the divergence of their philosophical approaches and research and treatment methods. Scientific advances in recent decades have made it clear that this separation is arbitrary and counterproductive. .... Further progress in understanding brain diseases and behavior demands fuller collaboration and integration of these fields. Leaders in academic medicine and science must work to break down the barriers between disciplines. Contemporary leaders and observers of academic medicine are not all equally ecstatic about this prospect, however. ... Read more »

Crossley, N., Scott, J., Ellison-Wright, I., & Mechelli, A. (2015) Neuroimaging distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 207(5), 429-434. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.114.154393  

David, A., & Nicholson, T. (2015) Are neurological and psychiatric disorders different?. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 207(5), 373-374. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.114.158550  

  • November 29, 2015
  • 11:45 PM

Diversity and persistence of group tags under replicator dynamics

by Artem Kaznatcheev in Evolutionary Games Group

Everyday I walk to the Stabile Research Building to drink espresso and sit in my cozy — although oversaturated with screens — office. Oh, and to chat about research with great people like Arturo Araujo, David Basanta, Jill Gallaher, Jacob Scott, Robert Vander Velde and other Moffitters. This walk to the office takes about 30 […]... Read more »

Jansson, F. (2015) What games support the evolution of an ingroup bias?. Journal of theoretical biology, 100-10. PMID: 25794651  

  • November 29, 2015
  • 03:06 PM

Mental health risk for new dads

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Researchers have found anxiety around the arrival of a new baby is just as common as postnatal depression, and the risks for men are nearly as high as for women. Mental health researcher Dr Liana Leach reviewed 43 separate studies and found anxiety before and after a child arrives is just as prevalent as depression, affecting around one in ten men, around half the rate for women.... Read more »

  • November 29, 2015
  • 01:41 PM

It is possible to develop successful HIV vaccine

by B V Waghmare in HIV virus and antiretroviral drugs and antiAIDS vaccine research and developmets

Antibodies developed in HIV infected individuals do not protect them against further proliferation of HIV, but protect proliferation of HIV in animals.
That means it is possible to develop a vaccine which will completely protect human from HIV infection.... Read more »

B V Waghmare. (2015) HIV Vaccine heading toward success. Combination of HIV neutralizing antibodies and Nanoparticle protien eOD-GT8 60mer are good hope for getting a effective anti HIV vaccine. info:/

  • November 28, 2015
  • 04:25 PM

How early life may influence the way elephants age

by Shermin de Silva in Maximus

Insights from 50 years of records on the reproduction and aging of Myanmar's timber elephants.... Read more »

Clubb, R., Rowcliffe, M., Lee, P., Mar, K., Moss, C., & Mason, G. (2008) Compromised Survivorship in Zoo Elephants. Science, 322(5908), 1649-1649. DOI: 10.1126/science.1164298  

Mumby, H., Mar, K., Thitaram, C., Courtiol, A., Towiboon, P., Min-Oo, Z., Htut-Aung, Y., Brown, J., & Lummaa, V. (2015) Stress and body condition are associated with climate and demography in Asian elephants. Conservation Physiology, 3(1). DOI: 10.1093/conphys/cov030  

de Silva, S., Webber, C., Weerathunga, U., Pushpakumara, T., Weerakoon, D., & Wittemyer, G. (2013) Demographic Variables for Wild Asian Elephants Using Longitudinal Observations. PLoS ONE, 8(12). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082788  

Mumby, H., Mar, K., Hayward, A., Htut, W., Htut-Aung, Y., & Lummaa, V. (2015) Elephants born in the high stress season have faster reproductive ageing. Scientific Reports, 13946. DOI: 10.1038/srep13946  

  • November 28, 2015
  • 03:20 PM

The silence of the genes, an epigenetic tale

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Research led by Dr. Keiji Tanimoto from the University of Tsukuba, Japan, has brought us closer to understanding the mechanisms underlying the phenomenon of genomic imprinting. In this intriguing event, one copy of a gene is ‘turned off’, or silenced, depending on whether it was derived from the mother or the father.... Read more »

Matsuzaki H, Okamura E, Takahashi T, Ushiki A, Nakamura T, Nakano T, Hata K, Fukamizu A, & Tanimoto K. (2015) De novo DNA methylation through the 5'-segment of the H19 ICR maintains its imprint during early embryogenesis. Development (Cambridge, England), 142(22), 3833-44. PMID: 26417043  

  • November 28, 2015
  • 02:54 AM

Acetylcysteine and autism: another case report

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

I don't want to spend too long on the findings reported by Danielle Stutzman & Julie Dopheide [1] talking about how: "Treatment with acetylcysteine improved ASD [autism spectrum disorder] symptoms, including irritability and aggression, in a teenage patient" but it is a blog-worthy paper.Describing the experiences of a "7-year-old Hispanic male with ASD and intellectual disability" who was hospitalised due to some rather 'challenging behaviours', the authors noted how the addition of acetylcysteine (often called N-acetlycysteine or NAC for short) seemed to have some pretty interesting positive effects on this young boy's behaviour. Not least also that the use of NAC "was well tolerated, with no observed or reported adverse effects." The authors go on to speculate that within the context of other reports on the use of NAC either alone or as an adjunct medicine, there may be quite a bit more to see with autism in mind, as well as providing some important information about relevant biological pathways in relation to specific 'types' of autism.I've talked about NAC and autism before on this blog, both within the context of group studies (see here) and under more individual 'N=1' conditions (see here) including with the word 'adjunct' in mind (see here). Within the context of issues that seem to come under the heading of 'challenging behaviours' (bearing in mind the variety of factors that such a description covers) there does appear to be some promising stories coming out of the use of NAC which might have all the be more importance given the lack of good therapeutic interventions for such behaviours.I'm not at this point going to speculate too much about exactly how and why NAC seems to 'help' when it comes to some challenging behaviours for some people on the autism spectrum. I will suggest that set within the context of studies on glutathione and some autism (see here) there may be some further research to do. That, and not being afraid to look at NAC in relation to something like schizophrenia (see here), and I dare say that there could be surprises for NAC in relation to some autism in future times...Music to close, and in amongst some recent discussions about 'Where are all the climate change songs?' a gem from The Pixies about a monkey...----------[1] Stutzman D. & Dopheide J. Acetylcysteine for treatment of autism spectrum disorder symptoms. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2015 Nov 15;72(22):1956-9.----------Stutzman D, & Dopheide J (2015). Acetylcysteine for treatment of autism spectrum disorder symptoms. American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 72 (22), 1956-9 PMID: 26541950... Read more »

Stutzman D, & Dopheide J. (2015) Acetylcysteine for treatment of autism spectrum disorder symptoms. American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 72(22), 1956-9. PMID: 26541950  

  • November 27, 2015
  • 03:43 PM

How to Build an Ant Bridge: Start Small

by Elizabeth Preston in Inkfish

You know when you're out walking with a big horde of your friends and you come to a chasm you can't step across, so a bunch of you clasp each other's limbs and make yourselves into a bridge for the rest to walk on?


Eciton army ants do this. And they're not the only ants that build incredible structures out of their strong, near-weightless bodies. Weaver ants make chains between leaves by holding onto each other's waists. Fire ants cling together to form rafts and survive floodin... Read more »

Reid CR, Lutz MJ, Powell S, Kao AB, Couzin ID, & Garnier S. (2015) Army ants dynamically adjust living bridges in response to a cost-benefit trade-off. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. PMID: 26598673  

  • November 27, 2015
  • 03:05 PM

Synapse discovery could lead to new treatments for Alzheimer’s disease

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

A team of researchers led by UNSW Australia scientists has discovered how connections between brain cells are destroyed in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease – work that opens up a new avenue for research on possible treatments for the degenerative brain condition.... Read more »

  • November 27, 2015
  • 09:28 AM

Designer proteins helping biomedicine

by ragothamanyennamalli in Getting to know Structural Bioinformatics

Professor Meiering and her colleagues were able to incorporate both structure and function into the design process by using bioinformatics to leverage information from nature. They then analyzed what they made and measured how long it took for the folded, functional protein to unfold and breakdown... Read more »

Broom A, Ma SM, Xia K, Rafalia H, Trainor K, Colón W, Gosavi S, & Meiering EM. (2015) Designed protein reveals structural determinants of extreme kinetic stability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112(47), 14605-10. PMID: 26554002  

  • November 27, 2015
  • 05:52 AM

Biomarkers in diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of RCC

by Danielle Stevenson in BHD Research Blog

Tumour biomarkers are measurable changes in cancer cells that could be used to improve available therapies. The identification of early biomarkers could increase early diagnosis rates and provide insight into tumour biology including aggressiveness. In addition tumour subtype-specific biomarkers could help identify the treatments most likely to be effective and also be used to measure response. The search for biomarkers in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is an active field, with various types of potential biomarker reported (reviewed in Mickley et al., 2015).... Read more »

  • November 27, 2015
  • 03:06 AM

Premature mortality and autism continued

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

"Premature mortality was markedly increased in ASD [autism spectrum disorder] owing to a multitude of medical conditions."So said the study by Tatja Hirvikoski and colleagues [1] and findings that although making uncomfortable reading, highlight how we have some way to go when it comes to addressing important health inequalities as and when a label of autism or ASD is given.Drawing on Swedish data including over 27,000 people diagnosed with an ASD between 1987 and 2009 compared against population information for some 2.6 million "gender-, age- and county of residence-matched controls", researchers examined the frequency of all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates across the groups. During their observation period some 0.9% of controls died compared with 2.6% of those on the autism spectrum. As per the opening sentence, this difference was described as "markedly increased" by the authors. Other important details are also provided as per the idea that gender and "general intellectual ability" might be moderating factors when it comes to the mortality patterns described with autism in mind.Realising that behind every statistic is a person and a family and a wider social group, I was not surprised by the Hirvikoski findings. Increased rates of early mortality when discussed in the context of autism have been talked about before on this blog (see here). In that previous case it was the findings reported by Deborah Bilder and colleagues [2] as the headline paper and their results based on data from the 1980s Utah/UCLA autism epidemiologic study. Then, as this time, "the presence of comorbid medical conditions and intellectual disability" played their part.There is an obvious need for continued need for research in this important area. Preferential screening is also perhaps implied based on the known over-representation of conditions like epilepsy or seizures disorder(s) when it comes to autism (see here) and onwards the potential for states such as SUDEP. Indeed, recognising that a diagnosis of autism may place someone at elevated risk of various medical comorbidity (see here) really needs to be talked about a lot more as per what seems to be happening when it comes to schizophrenia (see here) in the context of health inequalities leading to early mortality.Just before I go, I'd also like to refer you back to a post I wrote previously talking about 'issues' with screening and diagnosing certain medical comorbidity (see here) with autism in mind and how attending physicians might need to show a little medical creativity to ensure that diagnosis is both timely and accurate...---------[1] Hirvikoski T. et al. Premature mortality in autism spectrum disorder. Br J Psychiatry. 2015 Nov 5.[2] Bilder D. et al. Excess mortality and causes of death in autism spectrum disorders: a follow up of the 1980s Utah/UCLA autism epidemiologic study. J Autism Dev Disord. 2013 May;43(5):1196-204.----------Hirvikoski T, Mittendorfer-Rutz E, Boman M, Larsson H, Lichtenstein P, & Bölte S (2015). Premature mortality in autism spectrum disorder. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science PMID: 26541693... Read more »

Hirvikoski T, Mittendorfer-Rutz E, Boman M, Larsson H, Lichtenstein P, & Bölte S. (2015) Premature mortality in autism spectrum disorder. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. PMID: 26541693  

  • November 26, 2015
  • 04:37 PM

Stem cell study paves the way for patient therapies

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Stem cells that have been specifically developed for use as clinical therapies are fit for use in patients, an independent study of their genetic make-up suggests. The research – which focused on human embryonic stem cells – paves the way for clinical trials of cell therapies to treat conditions such as Parkinson’s disease, age-related degeneration of the eyes and spinal cord injury.... Read more »

Canham, M., Van Deusen, A., Brison, D., De Sousa, P., Downie, J., Devito, L., Hewitt, Z., Ilic, D., Kimber, S., Moore, H.... (2015) The Molecular Karyotype of 25 Clinical-Grade Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines. Scientific Reports, 17258. DOI: 10.1038/srep17258  

  • November 26, 2015
  • 01:25 PM

Gobble Up Some Facts About Turkeys

by Bill Sullivan in The 'Scope

Be the highlight of Thanksgiving dinner conversation after you learn these fascinating facts about turkeys!... Read more »

  • November 26, 2015
  • 08:16 AM

Chocolate agar: Enjoyed by people and meningitis-causing bacteria alike

by Rosin Cerate in Rosin Cerate

Chocolate agar refers to two very different foods, only one of which actually contains chocolate. Both are prepared using agar, a mixture obtained by boiling certain types of algae to release a sugar called agarose that forms a gel when it cools. Thus agar (also called agar agar) can be used to make jelly desserts, flavours of which include coffee-coconut and, you guessed it, chocolate. It's basically a vegan form of Jell-O (which contains gelatin derived from animal bits).The second type of chocolate agar is also a jelly-like substance, but it's prepared by adding blood (usually obtained from sheep, pigs, goats, or cows) to melted agar, slowly heating it until the blood turns a chocolate brown colour, and then pouring the appetizing mixture into dishes to cool and form a gel. The blood is heated to break open the red blood cells that are found within it. This is important because red blood cells contain delicious factors (e.g. NAD, hemin) that certain bacteria are unable to synthesize on their own but still require for growth. These same bacteria are really bad at breaking into red blood cells, and so will not grow well on agar made with unheated blood.Bacteria that specifically grow well on chocolate agar include Haemophilus influenzae (so named because it was thought at the time to be responsible for influenza, which is actually caused by a virus) and Neisseria meningitidis. Both of these bacteria are found hanging out innocuously in the throats of many healthy people, but can cause potentially life-threatening illnesses such as pneumonia and meningitis in individuals with a compromised immune system or who are otherwise susceptible to infection. Other bacteria that grow well on chocolate agar are responsible for sexually transmitted infections, such as Haemophilus ducreyi (chancroid) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea). The common theme here is bacteria that like to eat chocolate agar have a longstanding relationship with human beings, and likely lost their ability to make a number of necessary growth factors (found within red blood cells) because they could just grab them from the person they were residing in.ReferencesKoch ML. 1948. Pancreatic digest chocolate blood agar for the isolation of the gonococcus. Journal of Bacteriology 56(1):83-87. [Full text]Leifson E. 1932. Types of bacteria on blood and chocolate agar and the immediate cause of these types. Journal of Bacteriology 24(6):473-487. [Full text]Stephens DS. 2009. Biology and pathogenesis of the evolutionarily successful, obligate human bacterium Neisseria meningitidis. Vaccine 27(Suppl 2):B71-B77. [Full text]Tatusov RL, Mushegian AR, Bork P, Brown NP, Hayes WS, Borodovsky M, Rudd KE, Koonin EV. 1996. Metabolism and evolution of Haemophilus influenzae deduced from a whole-genome comparison with Escherichia coli. Current Biology 6(3):279-291.... Read more »

  • November 26, 2015
  • 08:06 AM

Can Active Surveillance Be Extended To Some Men With Elevated PSAs?

by Marie Benz in Interview with: Isaac Yi Kim, MD, PhD Acting Chief and Associate Professor, Division of Urology Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School Chief, Section of Urologic Oncology and Young Suk “Joseph” Kwon, MD Post-doctoral fellow  Section of Urologic Oncology Rutgers Cancer … Continue reading →
The post Can Active Surveillance Be Extended To Some Men With Elevated PSAs? appeared first on
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Isaac Yi Kim, MD, PhD, & Young Suk "Joseph" Kwon,. (2015) Can Active Surveillance Be Extended To Some Men With Elevated PSAs?. info:/

  • November 26, 2015
  • 07:42 AM

LUCAS: Lucentis Compared to Avastin Treat and Extend Study For Macular Degeneration

by Marie Benz in Interview with: Karina Birgitta Berg MD Department of Ophthalmology Oslo University Hospital Oslo, Norway  Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Berg: Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) has been the leading … Continue reading →
The post LUCAS: Lucentis Compared to Avastin Treat and Extend Study For Macular Degeneration appeared first on
... Read more »

Karina Birgitta Berg MD. (2015) LUCAS: Lucentis Compared to Avastin Treat and Extend Study For Macular Degeneration. info:/

  • November 26, 2015
  • 07:29 AM

Progesterone In Early Pregnancy Not Effective in Preventing Miscarriage

by Marie Benz in Interview with: Arri Coomarasamy, MBChB, MD, FRCOG Professor of Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine University of Birmingham Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Professor Coomarasamy: Progesterone is a natural hormone that is essential to … Continue reading →
The post Progesterone In Early Pregnancy Not Effective in Preventing Miscarriage appeared first on
... Read more »

Arri Coomarasamy, MBChB, MD, FRCOG. (2015) Progesterone In Early Pregnancy Not Effective in Preventing Miscarriage. info:/

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