by Emma in Science of Eating Disorders
If a person severely restricts his diet and exercises for hours each day, he has an eating disorder. If another does exactly the same but it is because she wants to make the lightweight rowing team (which has an upper weight limit), she’s a committed athlete. When the two overlap, and an athlete presents with eating disorder symptoms, how do we distinguish between the demands of the sport and the illness?
I’ve been interested in the distinctions we make between disordered and n........ Read more »
Werner, A., Thiel, A., Schneider, S., Mayer, J., Giel, K., & Zipfel, S. (2013) Weight-control behaviour and weight-concerns in young elite athletes – a systematic review. Journal of Eating Disorders, 1(1), 18. DOI: 10.1186/2050-2974-1-18
Martinsen, M., Bratland-Sanda, S., Eriksson, A., & Sundgot-Borgen, J. (2009) Dieting to win or to be thin? A study of dieting and disordered eating among adolescent elite athletes and non-athlete controls. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(1), 70-76. DOI: 10.1136/bjsm.2009.068668
Rouveix M, Bouget M, Pannafieux C, Champely S, & Filaire E. (2007) Eating attitudes, body esteem, perfectionism and anxiety of judo athletes and nonathletes. International journal of sports medicine, 28(4), 340-5. PMID: 17024652
Ferrand C, Magnan C, & Philippe RA. (2005) Body-esteem, body mass index, and risk for disordered eating among adolescents in synchronized swimming. Perceptual and motor skills, 101(3), 877-84. PMID: 16491692
The hypothesis that wait-lists could be nocebo conditions was investigated by Furukawa et al (2014). The authors performed a network meta-analysis of 49 RCT that involved cognitive-behaviour therapy for depression. ... Read more »
Furukawa TA, Noma H, Caldwell DM, Honyashiki M, Shinohara K, Imai H, Chen P, Hunot V, & Churchill R. (2014) Waiting list may be a nocebo condition in psychotherapy trials: a contribution from network meta-analysis. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. PMID: 24697518
The development of humanistic psychology began in the late 1950s and was ‘born‘ in the early 1960s. Given the time that humanistic psychology grew, there’s no doubt that it informed the civil rights movement. However, some say that humanistic psychology peaked in the 1970s. An … Continue reading →... Read more »
As tempting as it is to hope that one meditation practice could be a panacea within the mind – meditate, and become more mindful! improve your attention! cure your depression! notice when those around you need help! – I have to admit that I know the brain doesn’t work this way. The skills you practice are the skills you strengthen, and compassion in particular is a skill that requires more than just a general awareness of your environment.... Read more »
Weng HY, Fox AS, Shackman AJ, Stodola DE, Caldwell JZ, Olson MC, Rogers GM, & Davidson RJ. (2013) Compassion training alters altruism and neural responses to suffering. Psychological science, 24(7), 1171-1180. PMID: 23696200
Just say his brain made him do it! That is the conclusion of new research on the relationship between gruesomeness of the crime and the harshness of the sentence. In case you can’t intuit this one, the more gruesome (and disturbing) the crime, the harsher the sentence tends to be. But if the assault was […]
Neurolaw Update: Who’s in charge here—me or my brain?
When identifying punishment—will jurors focus on intent or outcome?
Simple Jury Persuasion: Anger + Disgust........ Read more »
Capestany BH, & Harris LT. (2014) Disgust and biological descriptions bias logical reasoning during legal decision-making. Social Neuroscience, 9(3), 265-277. PMID: 24571553
The paper by Ben-Or and colleagues  talking about a neurologic profile present in a small participant cohort of children and adolescents diagnosed with an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) caught my eye recently. Their findings reporting that over two-thirds of their paediatric participant group diagnosed with IBD also "exhibited neurologic manifestations" provides some compelling preliminary evidence for further investigation in this area.Outside of reports of headache and dizziness, the pres........ Read more »
Ben-Or O, Zelnik N, Shaoul R, Pacht A, & Lerner A. (2014) The Neurologic Profile of Children and Adolescents With Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Journal of child neurology. PMID: 24700662
The brain development of a fetus is really an amazing thing. The first sign of an incipient nervous system emerges during the third week of development; it is simply a thickened layer of tissue called the neural plate. After about 5 more days, the neural plate has formed an indentation called the neural groove, and the sides of the neural groove have curled up and begun to fuse together (see pic to the right). This will form the neural tube, which will eventually become the brain and spinal cord........ Read more »
Hashimoto-Torii, K., Torii, M., Fujimoto, M., Nakai, A., El Fatimy, R., Mezger, V., Ju, M., Ishii, S., Chao, S., Brennand, K.... (2014) Roles of Heat Shock Factor 1 in Neuronal Response to Fetal Environmental Risks and Its Relevance to Brain Disorders. Neuron. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2014.03.002
In this post I'm talking about the paper by Pål Surén and colleagues  and their suggestion that "paternal obesity is an independent risk factor for ASDs [autism spectrum disorders] in children". I do so not with the intent of stigmatising parents and specifically parents with weight issues, which tend to be present for many more reasons than just food and exercise (see here), but merely to highlight how parental physical health may show some relationship to offspring cog........ Read more »
Suren, P., Gunnes, N., Roth, C., Bresnahan, M., Hornig, M., Hirtz, D., Lie, K., Lipkin, W., Magnus, P., Reichborn-Kjennerud, T.... (2014) Parental Obesity and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder. PEDIATRICS. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2013-3664
by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room
Women smile more than men. Men are typically seen as more credible than women. So these researchers decided to see if there was a relationship between smiling and assessments of credibility on actual witnesses in the courtroom. The researchers used the Witness Credibility Scale to assess actual witnesses overall credibility. They thought that if smiling […]
Women as Expert Witnesses: The good, the sad, and the ugly
Which is the more moral negotiator? The male or the femal........ Read more »
Nagle JE, Brodsky SL, & Weeter K. (2014) Gender, Smiling, and Witness Credibility in Actual Trials. Behavioral sciences . PMID: 24634058
Is neuro-skepticism in danger of going too far? Is it time to take a critical look at critiques of neuroscience? Martha Farah of the University of Pennsylvania says yes, in a Hastings Center Report just published: Brain Images, Babies, and Bathwater: Critiquing Critiques of Functional Neuroimaging Farah covers a broad spectrum of criticisms, ranging from […]The post Brain Scans: Don’t Throw Out The Baby With The Dead Salmon appeared first on Neuroskeptic.... Read more »
Farah MJ. (2014) Brain images, babies, and bathwater: critiquing critiques of functional neuroimaging. The Hastings Center report. PMID: 24634081
Could exposure to dietary gluten affect a person's moods or emotional state?Well, if the paper by Simone Peters and colleagues  (open-access here) is to be believed the answer may very well be yes, at least in some cases, as they report a link between gluten consumption and feelings of depression under [short-term] experimental conditions. If replicated, such a finding may have profound consequences for how we view our relationship between food and mental health and wellbeing.Bread Ma'am?&nbs........ Read more »
Peters SL, Biesiekierski JR, Yelland GW, Muir JG, & Gibson PR. (2014) Randomised clinical trial: gluten may cause depression in subjects with non-coeliac gluten sensitivity - an exploratory randomised clinical study. Alimentary pharmacology . PMID: 24689456
Many people think of awe as a particularly religious emotion and therefore seem to assume that people with no religious beliefs at all, e.g. atheists are closed to the experience of awe. This assumption is quite false and reflects a wider prejudice against atheists. Research has shown that people who reject supernatural beliefs actually are capable of experiencing a sense of awe. In fact, the experience of awe may be particularly beneficial for those who do not believe in an afterlife.... Read more »
Caldwell-Harris, C., Wilson, A., LoTempio, E., & Beit-Hallahmi, B. (2011) Exploring the atheist personality: well-being, awe, and magical thinking in atheists, Buddhists, and Christians. Mental Health, Religion , 14(7), 659-672. DOI: 10.1080/13674676.2010.509847
Rudd M, Vohs KD, & Aaker J. (2012) Awe expands people's perception of time, alters decision making, and enhances well-being. Psychological science, 23(10), 1130-6. PMID: 22886132
If you are a chronic procrastinator, you're not alone. Habitual procrastination plagues around 15-20% of adults and 50% of college students. And, depending on the nature of the responsibilities one is neglecting, procrastination can have consequences. In a chronic procrastinator, repeated failure to efficiently complete important tasks can lead to lower feelings of self-worth. In certain contexts, it can also result in very tangible penalties. For example, a survey in 2002 found that 29% of Amer........ Read more »
Gustavson, D., Miyake, A., Hewitt, J., & Friedman, N. (2014) Genetic Relations Among Procrastination, Impulsivity, and Goal-Management Ability: Implications for the Evolutionary Origin of Procrastination. Psychological Science. DOI: 10.1177/0956797614526260
Telomeres, the DNA-protein caps that prevent chromosomal fraying, are positively affected by social stress, according to two independent studies that were just published within days of each other. One study -- which has received widespread media coverage -- found a positive relationship between social environment and telomere length in children, adding support to previous work in people. A second study -- which few have heard about -- found that accelerated telomere erosion is associated with so........ Read more »
Shalev Idan, Entringer Sonja, Wadhwa Pathik D., Wolkowitz Owen M., Puterman Eli, Lin Jue, & Epel Elissa S. (2013) Stress and telomere biology: A lifespan perspective. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38(9), 1835-1842. DOI: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2013.03.010
by amikulak in Daily Observations
Being able to distinguish what is real and what is not may seem pretty basic, but the inability to perform this task could be a marker of many psychiatric disorders. […]... Read more »
Sugimori, E., Mitchell, K., Raye, C., Greene, E., & Johnson, M. (2014) Brain Mechanisms Underlying Reality Monitoring for Heard and Imagined Words. Psychological Science, 25(2), 403-413. DOI: 10.1177/0956797613505776
Maybe as smart as a four year old child?Photo: DragoNika / ShutterstockCanine researchers have been investigating dogs’ cognitive abilities: whether they can solve puzzles, recognize our emotions, and so on. But are ordinary people aware of these findings, and do they have a realistic view of dogs? A paper by Tiffani Howell (Monash University) et al investigates owner’s beliefs about their dog’s intelligence.The research, published in the Journal of Veterinary Behavior, involved a web surv........ Read more »
Howell, T., Toukhsati, S., Conduit, R., & Bennett, P. (2013) The Perceptions of Dog Intelligence and Cognitive Skills (PoDIaCS) Survey. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 8(6), 418-424. DOI: 10.1016/j.jveb.2013.05.005
Join us for another guest post, this time from Claudia Fugazza of the Family Dog Project in Budapest. Claudia's here to discuss her recent publication in Applied Animal Behaviour Science on the efficiency of new methods in dog training.Hi Mia and Julie,Formal training methods used until now rely mainly on the well-known rules of individual associative learning. These methods work perfectly well for a very wide range of animals — pigeons, rats, dogs and even crabs — and human and non-human an........ Read more »
Fugazza Claudia, & Miklósi Ádám. (2014) Should old dog trainers learn new tricks? The efficiency of the Do as I do method and shaping/clicker training method to train dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 53-61. DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2014.01.009
We often associate people who are especially trusting with gullibility, low self-esteem, and lower intellectual function. However, we seem to have it backwards according to new research (which successfully replicates the results of studies from 2010 and 2012). Intelligent people are more likely to trust others while those lower in intelligence are less likely to […]
How ‘myside bias’ is related to your intelligence
“Just about always” and “Never” responses to ........ Read more »
Carl N, & Billari FC. (2014) Generalized trust and intelligence in the United States. PLoS ONE, 9(3). PMID: 24619035
Biology can tell us what but theory tells us why. There is a new issue of Current Opinion in Neurobiology that focuses on the theory and computation in neuroscience. There’s tons of great stuff there, from learning and memory to the meaning of a spike to the structure of circuitry. I have an article in this issue and […]... Read more »
Sharpee, T., Calhoun, A., & Chalasani, S. (2014) Information theory of adaptation in neurons, behavior, and mood. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 47-53. DOI: 10.1016/j.conb.2013.11.007
The paper by Kate Lievesley and colleagues  documenting various "predisposing, precipitating and perpetuating factors in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in children and adolescents" caught my eye recently. Based on a review of the research literature around the topic of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) [in childhood], the authors set about detailing some of the important factors linked to the condition and in doing so, highlighted how physiology and psychology might combine when it........ Read more »
Lievesley, K., Rimes, K., & Chalder, T. (2014) A review of the predisposing, precipitating and perpetuating factors in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in children and adolescents. Clinical Psychology Review. DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2014.02.002
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