Theories about the domestication of dogs often say they have evolved to pay more attention to humans than their wolf forebears. But the experimental evidence tends to only look at dogs. A new study by Friederike Range (University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna) and Szófia Virányi (Wolf Science Centre) compares the abilities of dogs and hand-reared wolves to utilize observations of human or dog behaviour to find food.Photo: Holly Kuchera / ShutterstockEleven wolves and fourteen do........ Read more »
Horowitz, A, Hecht, J, & Dedrick, A. (2013) Smelling more or less: Investigating the olfactory experience of the domestic dog. Learning and Motivation, 44(4), 207-217. info:/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lmot.2013.02.002
Range, F., & Viranyi, S. (2013) Social learning from humans or conspecifics: differences and similarities between wolves and dogs. Frontiers in Psychology. info:/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00868
Hmmm. Here’s research that says the appearance of managing partners’ faces at America’s 100 top law firms is tied to firm “profit margin, profitability index, and profits per equity partner”. You may want to look at managing partners’ faces before making a decision about that job offer! We’ve written about first impressions before but this […]
I can tell from your face that you are suicidal
Never trust a man with a wide face
Between Coddling and Contempt: Mana........ Read more »
Rule, NO, & Ambady, N. (2011) Face and fortune: Inferences of personality from managing partners’ faces predict their law firms’ financial success. . The Leadership Quarterly, 690-696. DOI: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.05.009
by Andrea in Science of Eating Disorders
Studying, as I do, in a department of family relations, I have become interested in family relationships and parenting. Accordingly, I have begun to take note of interesting studies that link family dynamics and parenting with eating disorders, including studies that look at the sibling relationship (as I wrote about here), family-based treatment, and motherhood/fatherhood in the context of eating disorders.
The literature appears to have shifted, lately, from a focus on “eating-disorder........ Read more »
Tuval-Mashiach R, Ram A, Shapiro T, Shenhav S, & Gur E. (2013) Negotiating maternal identity: mothers with eating disorders discuss their coping. Eating Disorders, 21(1), 37-52. PMID: 23241089
Researchers have found that the size of opening for light in our eye (pupil) changes even if we are only thinking of bright and dark objects and/or scenes.
“Visual imagery is a private and subjective experience which is not accompanied by strongly felt or visible physiological changes,” explained psychological scientist and lead researcher Bruno Laeng of the University of Oslo. “It is a particularly d........ Read more »
At their best, leaders get something from their workforce that would have been impossible otherwise. Research on this 'transformational leadership' style suggests that it can inspire employees to more creative performance - such as coming up with new and useful products – as well as encouraging helping behaviours. However, these benefits aren't seen across every study. A new paper suggests one reason is that some people simply don't need what the transformational leader has to offer.Phillip Gi........ Read more »
Phillip Gilmore, Xiaoxiao Hui, Feng Wei, Lois Tetrick, & Stephen Zaccaro. (2013) Positive affectivity neutralizes transformational leadership’s influence on creative performance and organizational citizenship behaviors . Journal of Organizational Behavior, 1061-1075. DOI: 10.1002/job.1833
by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room
Despite the research telling us people will like you more if you are warm and hire you more when you are competent–perhaps, it is more important that you are moral. While that may seem odd at first, it actually makes some sense. A seemingly warm and friendly person may be hiding nefarious motives under that […]
Is that quick decision a good indicator of your moral character?
What’s a moral issue for us these days?
How leaders look: Competent and trustworthy, but not........ Read more »
Goodwin GP, Piazza J, & Rozin P. (2013) Moral Character Predominates in Person Perception and Evaluation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. PMID: 24274087
I've taken my time in posting this entry specifically dedicated to the paper by Virginia Chaidez and colleagues* which "puts to rest the idea that gastrointestinal problems among children with autism spectrum disorder are just an accumulation of case reports" according to one of the paper authors (see here). It's not that I don't see these findings to be absolutely fascinating, but rather that I wanted the research dust to settle a little before I added my [inflation adjusted] 10 ........ Read more »
Chaidez V, Hansen RL, & Hertz-Picciotto I. (2013) Gastrointestinal Problems in Children with Autism, Developmental Delays or Typical Development. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. PMID: 24193577
I remember, aged five or so, a friend and I were the cool police motorcyclists from the TV show CHiPs. Our props were limited to the usual paraphernalia of a suburban home and yet somehow both of us knew when the other person was on foot or on his Kawasaki motorbike, which routes through the house were motorways, where the baddies were located, and most important, we both understood the plot of our game.For a new study, a team of psychologists in Australia has taken an interest in the conversati........ Read more »
Frances Hoyte, Jane Torr, & Sheila Degotardi. (2013) The language of friendship: Genre in the conversations of preschool children. Journal of Early Childhood Research. DOI: 10.1177/1476718X13492941
Does emotional intelligence, a set of abilities concerned with processing emotions and emotional information, contribute to how one member of a self-managed group who lacks formal authority may influence other members? Researchers recently addressed this important question about informal influence processes and the concept called leadership emergence. The answer is “Yes”. Leadership emergence relates [...]The post Leadership, Emotional Intelligence, Mechanisms of Leadership Emergence, ........ Read more »
Cote, S., Lopes, P.N., Salovey, P., & Miners, C.T.H. (2010) Emotional intelligence and leadership emergence in small groups. The Leadership Quarterly. DOI: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2010.03.012
Homocysteine - the big H - really should have its own Twitter hashtag... #thebigH.Not only because of the range of health-related conditions which seem to be correlated with particular levels of this amino acid - think coronary heart disease and elevated homocysteine for example* or more recently cerebrovascular disease** - but also because of the body of work linking elevated homocysteine levels to diagnoses like autism and schizophrenia. (Yes, I know correlation does not equal causation).The B........ Read more »
Geller V, Friger M, Sela BA, & Levine J. (2013) Elevated homocysteine level in siblings of patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatry research. PMID: 24051177
The Stanford Prison Experiment has had a remarkable influence in psychology, and has been used to demonstrate the alleged power of situations to triumph over individual differences. However, closer examination of the study's methodology shows that this conclusion is completely unwarranted, and that the study did not provide an adequate test of the role of personality. ... Read more »
Carnahan T, & McFarland S. (2007) Revisiting the Stanford prison experiment: could participant self-selection have led to the cruelty?. Personality , 33(5), 603-14. PMID: 17440210
Researchers have found that there are some unconscious feelings in the married couples that can better predict the future happiness. So, don’t worry about the apparent behavior or conscious thinkings.
Researchers, in the present study, worked with 135 newlywed couples (270 individuals) for the first four years and found that gut-level feelings are better indicators for the outcome of the relationship. These gut-level feelings ........ Read more »
James K. McNulty et al. (2013) Though They May Be Unaware, Newlyweds Implicitly Know Whether Their Marriage Will Be Satisfying. Science. DOI: 10.1126/science.1243140
The blight of Black Friday is upon us. What better time to look at a recent paper on compulsive shopping? Sohn and Choi (2013) adopted a qualitative approach and recruited a small group of Korean housewives with problematic shopping habits via consumer news websites. These nine women ranged in age from 22 to 40. The authors identified their target group as individuals with compulsive buying disorder, who reported a "preoccupation with shopping, pre-purchase tension or anxiety, and sense of reli........ Read more »
Sang-Hee Sohn and Yun-Jung Choi. (2013) Phases of Shopping Addiction Evidenced by Experiences of Compulsive Buyers. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. DOI: 10.1007/s11469-013-9449-y
Organisations invest up to 15 per cent of their personnel budget on meetings, yet their ubiquity is a common source of frustration, partly validated by evidence that as many as a third of meetings simply aren't productive. As research catches on to the importance of this area, we are beginning to understand how practical factors like agendas and refreshments influence meeting quality. So what about the emotional side to meetings? According to a new study, meeting attendees who feel the need to m........ Read more »
Linda R. Shanock, Joseph A. Allen, Alexandra M. Dunn, Benjamin E. Baran, Cliff W. Scott, & Steven G. Rogelberg. (2013) Less acting, more doing: How surface acting relates to perceived meeting effectiveness and other employee outcomes . Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 457-476. DOI: 10.1111/joop.12037
It’s called the collective action problem: we’d rather rely on others to do the hard work.In a cohesive community however, it is more likely that people will volunteer to become active. The reason? The enforceable trust that comes with the cohesion. This is important for how you organise your daily working life (make sure your team is cohesive) :-) but may also explain why some communities have less trouble than others to overcome disaster experiences.... Read more »
Christakis, & Fowler. (2007) The Spread of Obesity in a Large Social Network over 32 Years. N Engl J Med, 370-379. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMsa066082
Kawachi I, & Subramanian SV. (2006) Measuring and modeling the social and geographic context of trauma: a multilevel modeling approach. Journal of traumatic stress, 195-203. PMID: 16612828
It's only in the last few years that researchers have documented the existence of a select group of individuals who have memories like a diary. Give them a random date from the past and they can tell you what they were doing that day, they can name public events happening around the time, and they can say what day of the week it was. Does this mean that their memories are less prone to distortion than yours and mine? Not according to a new study.Lawrence Patihis and his colleagues, including the........ Read more »
Patihis L, Frenda SJ, Leport AK, Petersen N, Nichols RM, Stark CE, McGaugh JL, & Loftus EF. (2013) False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. PMID: 24248358
A new study finds that equipment used in scientific field research can best be protected from theft and vandalism by tagging it with a polite, personal message that provides a brief overview of the research and an appeal to leave the equipment undisturbed. ... Read more »
Clarin B.-Markus, Bitzilekis Eleftherios , Siemers Bjorn M. , & Goerlitz Holger R. . (2013) Personal messages reduce vandalism and theft of unattended scientific equipment. Methods in Ecology and Evolution. DOI: 10.1111/2041-210X.12132
Researchers have told an easy way to get fit - Watch sports.
Frontiers in Autonomic Neuroscience
Researchers have reported that watching other people exercise usually increases heart rate of the person along with some other physiological parameters as the person himself is doing exercise.
In the present study, researchers inserted very fine needles into an outer nerve of nine volunteers to record the electrical signals of nerve fibers di........ Read more »
Rachael Brown et al. (2013) Increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity, heart rate, respiration, and skin blood flow during passive viewing of exercise. Frontiers in Autonomic Neuroscience. DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2013.00102
Photo: Sophie Louise Davis / Shutterstock Normal 0 false false false EN-CA X-NONE X-NONE ... Read more »
Freidin E, Putrino N, D'Orazio M, & Bentosela M. (2013) Dogs' Eavesdropping from People's Reactions in Third Party Interactions. PloS one, 8(11). PMID: 24236108
by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room
Priming is the idea that subtle cues and reminders can powerfully influence behavior. You hear about it in studies where women reminded of their gender perform less well on math problems. You may be skeptical of the power of priming on your own behavior. And certainly on the behavior of the hardened criminal. Alas, you […]
Expert witness influence: Interrogation tactics and false confessions
You don’t have to drink to show intoxicated recall and behavior!
Eliot Spitzer, U........ Read more »
Cohn, A., Maréchal, MA, & Noll, T. (2013) Bad Boys: The effect of criminal identity on dishonesty. . SSRN Electronic Journal. DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.2347260
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