"There's no mystical energy field that controls my destiny". So said a very sceptical Han Solo.Regular readers might know that I'm a bit of fan of the whole gut-brain axis; indeed other kinds of axes too. I know that to some it might sound a bit daft that what goes on in our deepest, darkest bowels might actually have some important effects on the operations of the grey-pinkish matter floating around in skull central - and vice-versa - but nonetheless it interests me. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is not quite the mystical energy field that Captain Solo was referring to, but make no mistake, we are still very much in the infancy of looking at the connection between the two systems*.Black dog @ Wikipedia I've tended to discuss/speculate on the gut-brain relationship with regards to cases of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on this blog. In this post I'm branching out to look at the paper by Mary Rogers and colleagues** (open-access) on a potentially new dimension to the gut-brain conversation with depression and Clostridium difficile infection in mind.The Rogers paper is open-access and has also attracted some media attention as a result (see here and here for the press release). The long-and-short of it was that based on two studies - a sort of scientific BOGOF - looking at the rates of C.diff infection (CDI) in participants with and without depression and the potential effects of antidepressant medication use and hospital-acquired CDI, some interesting correlations were noted. Note that word 'correlations'...Primary among the findings was the suggestion that the chances of CDI were higher in those presenting with depression: "After adjusting for demographic characteristics, comorbidities and frequency of medical visits, there was a 36% increase in the odds of developing CDI for individuals with major depression compared with those without major depression" (CI: 1-06-1.74, p=0.016). Indeed when it came to the label of "emotional, nervous or psychiatric problems", the CDI risk was found to be even higher (OR: 1.47). Certainly some interesting data, made all the more credible by the fact that the total sample size numbered in the thousands. When it came to medication use, there were some equally interesting associations (not) made. So for example, laboratory confirmed CDI (via stool testing) seemed not to correlate with the majority of medicines participants were also taking at the time of testing. The exceptions were mirtazapine (OR: 2.14) and fluoxetine (OR: 1.92) which were individually associated with an approximate doubling of CDI risk and also carrying some dose-related associations.Authors also reported that polypharmacy - if I can use that word with less than 5 meds being taken - might also impact on CDI risk, as per the "significant interaction between mirtazapine and trazodone" where "the odds of a positive C. difficile test were 5.72 times greater" bearing in mind the small participant numbers who were prescribed these two drugs combined. As per the press on this paper: "People who have been prescribed these types of anti-depressants need to keep taking them unless otherwise advised by their physician"; a viewpoint that I can only echo at this stage.You can perhaps see why I might be interested in this line of research. There is of course the chicken-and-egg question about which came first: microbial changes which place a person at greater risk of CDI and perhaps depression, or depression leading to changes to the gut microbiota and onwards elevated CDI risk. I'm not going to speculate too much on what came first because I dare say the clinical picture is going to be much more complicated than such a simple question. I've talked before about the possibility of a bi-directional relationship between gut bacteria and behaviour (at least in mice) and my viewpoint has changed very little in the intervening years. Bear also in mind that the hows and whys of depression (in all its forms) are likely to be numerous; perhaps even related to our earliest years****It's interesting that the authors discuss quite a few important overlapping pieces of research in their summary of their findings related to things like the presence of bowel disease in cases of depression*** and that magical word 'inflammation'*****. To quote: "It is possible that there is a lifelong liaison between the gut microbiota and neurologic response to external stimuli" which certainly does seem to link in with at least some of the current research literature.Alongside the tentative associations made by Rogers et al on the issue of depression and CDI, I find my mind wandering back to the question of whether such an association might be something which could be translated into therapeutic options. Y'know whether treating the CDI actually had any quantifiable impact on the presentation of depression or vice-versa. Indeed whether one of the more unusual methods suggested to help combat CDI - yep, the fecal transplant - might also impact on depression via changes to the gut microbiota as per the very preliminary reports from other conditions such as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)? That and possibility that gut bacteria might, just might, be in cahoots with other more barrier-related issues******, makes for some interesting suggestions for further scientific inquiry*******.To end, y'know I prefer Constantiople over Istanbul....----------* Collins SM. & Bercik P. Gut microbiota: intestinal bacteria influence brain activity in healthy humans. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology. May 2013.** Rogers MAM. et al. Depression, antidepressant medications, and risk of Clostridium difficileinfection. BMC Medicine 2013; 11: 121.*** Graff LA. et al. Depression and anxiety in inflammatory bowel disease: a review of comorbidity and management. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2009; 15: 1105-1118.**** Parboosing R. et al. Gestational influenza and bipolar disorder in adult offspring. JAMA Psychiatry. May 2013.***** Vogelzangs N. et al. Association of depressive disorders, depression characteristics and antidepressant medication with inflammation. Transl Psychiatry. 2012; 2: e79.****** Maes M. et al. Increased IgA and IgM responses against gut commensals in chronic depression: further evidence for increased bacterial translocation or leaky gut. J Affect Disord. 2012; 141: 55-62.******* Hughes PA. et al. Immune activation in irritable bowel syndrome: can neuroimmune interactions explain symptoms? Am J Gastroenterol. May 2013----------... Read more »
Rogers, M., Greene, M., Young, V., Saint, S., Langa, K., Kao, J., & Aronoff, D. (2013) Depression, antidepressant medications, and risk of Clostridium difficile infection. BMC Medicine, 11(1), 121. DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-11-121
The signalling diagram has been updated to include the following recent research papers: FNIP2 causes MNU-induced apoptosis (Sano et al., 2013) FLCN inhibits MMP9 (Pimenta et al., 2012) FLCN inhibits HIF-1a, mTORC1 and mTORC2 (Nishii et al., 2013) FLCN and … Continue reading →... Read more »
Sano S, Sakagami R, Sekiguchi M, & Hidaka M. (2013) Stabilization of MAPO1 by specific binding with folliculin and AMP-activated protein kinase in O⁶-methylguanine-induced apoptosis. Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 430(2), 810-5. PMID: 23201403
Pimenta SP, Baldi BG, Nascimento EC, Mauad T, Kairalla RA, & Carvalho CR. (2012) Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome: metalloproteinase activity and response to doxycycline. Clinics (Sao Paulo, Brazil), 67(12), 1501-4. PMID: 23295609
Nishii T, Tanabe M, Tanaka R, Matsuzawa T, Okudela K, Nozawa A, Nakatani Y, & Furuya M. (2013) Unique mutation, accelerated mTOR signaling and angiogenesis in the pulmonary cysts of Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome. Pathology international, 63(1), 45-55. PMID: 23356225
Pradella LM, Lang M, Kurelac I, Mariani E, Guerra F, Zuntini R, Tallini G, Mackay A, Reis-Filho JS, Seri M.... (2013) Where Birt-Hogg-Dubé meets Cowden Syndrome: mirrored genetic defects in two cases of syndromic oncocytic tumours. European journal of human genetics : EJHG. PMID: 23386036
Lu X, Boora U, Seabra L, Rabai EM, Fenton J, Reiman A, Nagy Z, & Maher ER. (2013) Knockdown of Slingshot 2 (SSH2) serine phosphatase induces Caspase3 activation in human carcinoma cell lines with the loss of the Birt-Hogg-Dubé tumour suppressor gene (FLCN). Oncogene. PMID: 23416984
Kawai A, Kobayashi T, & Hino O. (2013) Folliculin regulates cyclin D1 expression through cis-acting elements in the 3' untranslated region of cyclin D1 mRNA. International journal of oncology, 42(5), 1597-604. PMID: 23525507
Gharbi H, Fabretti F, Bharill P, Rinschen M, Brinkkötter S, Frommolt P, Burst V, Schermer B, Benzing T, & Müller RU. (2013) Loss of the Birt-Hogg-Dubé gene product Folliculin induces longevity in a hypoxia-inducible factor dependent manner. Aging cell. PMID: 23566034
Defects of mitochondrial function have been identified in several neurodegenerative diseases. These include abnormalities induced by mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) those caused by mutation of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins, and in some cases, exposure to mitochondrial toxins.MtDNA mutation are associated with a variety of progressive encephalomyopathies inn which there is evidence of neurodegeneration. These include Kearns-Sayre syndrome myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke – like episodes (MELAS) and Myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibers (MERRF) and Leigh’s syndrome. In Leber’s heredity optic neuropathy (LHON), there is degeneration of retinal ganglion cells. Occasional reports have described mtDNA mutation in association with Parkinson’s Diseases (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).Mutation in the nuclear gene for mtDNA polymerase gamma (POLG) have been found in a range of disorders that include Alper’s Syndrome, progressive external opthalmoplegia (PEO), sensory ataxia, neuropathy, dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO) and parkinsonism. Although most cases of Parkinsonism due to POLG mutations have been preceded by PEO, some have been described with only Parkinsonism and neuropathy. The early onset from hepatocerebral mtDNA depletion is associated with mutation in the deoxyguanosine kinase gene and thymidine phosphorylase mutation are a cause of mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE). Mutation have been identified in nuclear genes for mitochondrial protein involved in the assembly and maintenance of cytochrome oxidase including SCO2, SURF1, COX10, COX15 and LRPPRC. These results in autosomal recessive COX deficiency that usually presents in early life with Leigh syndrome, myopathy and encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and a progressive course with early death.There is deficiency in complex I activity in PD substantia nigra and platelets. Complex I is the target of toxin known to produce parkinsonian features in human e.g. MPTP and anonnacin, and animal model of PD e.g. rotenone and tetrahydroisoquinoline. The pathogenesis of PD also includes protein aggregation (Lewy bodies). Mitochondrial dysfunction will contribute to dysfunction of the energy dependent ubiquitin proteasomal system (UPS) and oxidative stress will add to the substrate load. Several of the single gene mutation causing familial PD has been identified as mitochondrial proteins including PINK1, DJ1 and parkin. The cellular disruption of the latter appears to depend upon the stage of cell differentiation. A proportion of LRRK2 is associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondrial dysfunction has also been identifies in AD, ALS and Huntington’s diseases although the relationship to pathogenesis in the respective diseases remain unknown. McFarland R, Taylor RW, & Turnbull DM (2010). A neurological perspective on mitochondrial disease. Lancet neurology, 9 (8), 829-40 PMID: 20650404Venna N (2004). Mitochondrial neurological diseases: a clinician's perspective. Neurology India, 52 (3), 305-6 PMID: 15472416... Read more »
McFarland R, Taylor RW, & Turnbull DM. (2010) A neurological perspective on mitochondrial disease. Lancet neurology, 9(8), 829-40. PMID: 20650404
Venna N. (2004) Mitochondrial neurological diseases: a clinician's perspective. Neurology India, 52(3), 305-6. PMID: 15472416
Take Home Message: The Wii Balance Board is an acceptable substitute for measuring the center of pressure during single leg stance balance tests.
While a laboratory grade force plate is the gold standard for both testing and training balance, these force plates are limited to research laboratories. Due to the importance of balance testing and training during the rehabilitation process, a cost effective, widely available and portable force plate is desirable. Therefore, Huurnink and colleagues compared a laboratory grade, in-floor force plate to the Wii Balance Board (WBB).... Read more »
Huurnink A, Fransz DP, Kingma I, & van Dieën JH. (2013) Comparison of a laboratory grade force platform with a Nintendo Wii Balance Board on measurement of postural control in single-leg stance balance tasks. Journal of Biomechanics, 46(7), 1392-5. PMID: 23528845
(source)Hi Julie, WOW!Dogs in clothes. Corgis in bikinis at the beach. Greyhounds in onesies. We people do some weird things to our canine friends, no?! I'm pretty sure I wouldn't enjoy being dressed up in a padded outfit all day long, so I think I'll pass on sharing that experience with my dogs. As you said, cultural perceptions, ethics and expectations add a whole layer of extra consideration. It's not always easy to work out what dogs want or need. That's why I like science. It helps us work this stuff out.I've been super busy this week - working hard (as always!) and still thinking a lot about dogs living in kennel facilities. So I wanted to pull your head away from dogs dressed as flowers, back to dogs getting the opportunity to smell the flowers. No, really. Lavender in fact.(source)Dogs should stop to smell the flowers. Especially lavender.When I talk to people about the body of research that's been conducted in the area of environmental enrichment for dogs housed in kennels, they never fail to be amazed at what has been studied. Or what hasn't. One topic that usually results in a snort, a laugh or a quizzical raised eyebrow is olfactory (smelly) stimulation. Which is kind of weird. Because we know that dogs can smell on a level that's basically in another galaxy compared to our smelling experiences. Research conducted in a rescue shelter kennel in 2005 exposed dogs to five different diffused aromas: - a blank control, or essential oil of- chamomile - lavender - peppermint- rosemary The study showed that olfactory stimulation had a significant effect on behaviour. Dogs were more likely to rest and less likely to bark when exposed to the smells of lavender and chamomile. Peppermint and rosemary exposure resulted in more active and noisy behaviour. The researchers suggested that the welfare of dogs in shelter kennel environments (and also their attractiveness to potential adopters) could be improved by using this kind of aromatherapy. What a dog's nose knows.Further research has shown a similar effect of lavender in effecting the behaviour of dogs with travel-induced excitement in cars: they spent more time sitting, resting and less time vocalising when they were exposed to the smell of lavender.Interestingly, human studies show a similar effect of lavender on us: reduced mental stress.So if a dog is in a kennel environment and can't get out to romp in a field of flowers, or chomp them up (as dogs tend to do!), perhaps we can help them out by giving them something... Read more »
Wells Deborah L. (2009) Sensory stimulation as environmental enrichment for captive animals: A review. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 118(1-2), 1-11. DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2009.01.002
Graham Lynne, Wells Deborah L., & Hepper Peter G. (2005) The influence of olfactory stimulation on the behaviour of dogs housed in a rescue shelter. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 91(1-2), 143-153. DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2004.08.024
Wells Deborah L. (2006) Aromatherapy for travel-induced excitement in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 229(6), 964-967. DOI: 10.2460/javma.229.6.964
The range of tools used to study the brain is vast. Neuroscientists toss together ideas from genetics, biochemistry, immunology, physics, computer science, medicine and countless other fields when choosing their techniques. We work on animals ranging from barely-visible worms and the common fruit fly to complicated creatures like mice, monkeys, and men. We record from […]... Read more »
Marder, E. (2011) Colloquium Paper: Variability, compensation, and modulation in neurons and circuits. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(Supplement_3), 15542-15548. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1010674108
As the world shifts from coal to natural gas, it is becoming more important to find ways of using natural gas efficiently and environmentally friendly. Now chemical engineering researchers have identified a new mechanism to convert natural gas into energy up to 70 times faster, while effectively capturing the greenhouse gas—carbon dioxide.... Read more »
Galinsky, N., Huang, Y., Shafiefarhood, A., & Li, F. (2013) Iron Oxide with Facilitated O Transport for Facile Fuel Oxidation and CO Capture in a Chemical Looping Scheme . ACS Sustainable Chemistry , 1(3), 364-373. DOI: 10.1021/sc300177j
....public health advocates have called for deworming as a cost-effective strategy to reduce risk of contracting HIV in regions endemic for S. haematobium and HIV... Read more »
Ndeffo Mbah, M., Kjetland, E., Atkins, K., Poolman, E., Orenstein, E., Meyers, L., Townsend, J., & Galvani, A. (2013) Cost-effectiveness of a community-based intervention for reducing the transmission of Schistosoma haematobium and HIV in Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(19), 7952-7957. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1221396110
Heart failure (also known as congestive heart failure) is one of the most common and debilitating conditions associated with ageing. At present, there is no real cure for the condition and treatments focus on improving the symptoms and preventing the progression of the disease. Today, a new study was published by researchers at Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI) that sheds new light on the condition and proposes a potential new treatment option.Read More... Read more »
Loffredo, F., Steinhauser, M., Jay, S., Gannon, J., Pancoast, J., Yalamanchi, P., Sinha, M., Dall’Osso, C., Khong, D., Shadrach, J.... (2013) Growth Differentiation Factor 11 Is a Circulating Factor that Reverses Age-Related Cardiac Hypertrophy. Cell, 153(4), 828-839. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2013.04.015
When we think of wounds, we don’t typically think of them as part of normal, healthy function. Micro-wounds, however, form when white blood cells have to cross the barrier in our blood vessels to get to an injury or infection. These micro-wounds happen all the time, and our cells heal these wounds efficiently and elegantly.One of the most important barriers in our body is that created by the vascular endothelium. Vascular endothelial cells line all of our blood vessels—from the largest vessels to the smallest capillaries—and function in fluid filtration, hormone trafficking, and recruitment and trafficking of blood and stem cells. The movement of cells, for example white blood cells, across the vascular endothelium and out of circulation creates “micro-wounds” that can compromise the integrity of the tissue. A recent paper describes how these micro-wounds are healed, based on a model in which the vascular endothelium senses a loss of tension upon micro-wounding and triggers its own repair. Martinelli and colleagues tracked micro-wounds that were created by either transmigrating white blood cells or by mechanical disruption by a probe, and found that ventral lamellipodia are generated by endothelial cells to close the micro-wounds. These lamellipodia are enriched in Rac1 effector proteins, and require reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Arp2/3 for efficient wound closing. Images above show probe-induced wounding of an endothelial cell, followed by wound healing. The wound initially expanded to 20um across (80 seconds), with multiple nodes of ventral lamellipodia (blue arrowheads) and ventral F-actin waves forming around the wound and closing it.Martinelli, R., Kamei, M., Sage, P., Massol, R., Varghese, L., Sciuto, T., Toporsian, M., Dvorak, A., Kirchhausen, T., Springer, T., & Carman, C. (2013). Release of cellular tension signals self-restorative ventral lamellipodia to heal barrier micro-wounds originally published in the Journal of Cell Biology, 201 (3), 449-465 DOI: 10.1083/jcb.201209077... Read more »
Martinelli, R., Kamei, M., Sage, P., Massol, R., Varghese, L., Sciuto, T., Toporsian, M., Dvorak, A., Kirchhausen, T., Springer, T.... (2013) Release of cellular tension signals self-restorative ventral lamellipodia to heal barrier micro-wounds. originally published in the Journal of Cell Biology, 201(3), 449-465. DOI: 10.1083/jcb.201209077
by Andrea in Science of Eating Disorders
The idea of including dance and movement in interventions for eating disorders may seem somewhat controversial; generally, exercise and physical activity are discouraged for individuals recovering from eating disorders. Including dance in therapeutic interventions might raise a few eyebrows given the links between appearance-oriented athletic endeavors such as ballet and gymnastics and the development of eating disorders.
However, some therapists and scholars interested in alternative therapies for eating disorders have suggested that certain forms of movement therapy may help individuals with eating disorders connect to their bodies in a different, more positive way.
In 2011, two such scholars from Portugal, Padrão & Coimbra, published a 6-month pilot intervention for individuals hospitalized for anorexia nervosa (AN) based around body movement.
Data consisted of observations of free movement and conversations that came up during and after the sessions. Their sample size consisted of only 7 young women hospitalized for anorexia.
I’ll admit that despite years of dance training and a keen interest in the potential of dance therapy in mental health treatment, I was skeptical of this study from the start. …
You May Also Like:
How Do Anorexia Nervosa Patients Define Recovery and Engage in Treatment? The Need for Individualized Treatment
Factors Associated with Recovery from Anorexia Nervosa
Personality Traits after Recovery from Eating Disorders: Do Anorexia and Bulimia Patients Differ?
... Read more »
Padrão, M., & Coimbra, J. (2011) The Anorectic Dance: Towards a New Understanding of Inner-Experience Through Psychotherapeutic Movement. American Journal of Dance Therapy, 33(2), 131-147. DOI: 10.1007/s10465-011-9113-7
My recent post about diamonds was a rapid romp through some of the most marvellous things earth scientists have discovered about them. In the interests of keeping the casual reader engaged I left out many things. If this left you with … Continue reading →... Read more »
Schulze, D., Harte, B., , ., Page, F., Valley, J., Channer, D., & Jaques, A. (2013) Anticorrelation between low 13C of eclogitic diamonds and high 18O of their coesite and garnet inclusions requires a subduction origin. Geology, 41(4), 455-458. DOI: 10.1130/G33839.1
This is not a regular research blogging post, but important enough that anyone following this blog should be aware of it. Most of you doing research, I assume being associated with an institute/university, would have an academic email id that does not end with .com. You are vulnerable, my friend. Yes, the subject is "open access publishing scam".... Read more »
Butler, D. (2013) Investigating journals: The dark side of publishing. Nature, 495(7442), 433-435. DOI: 10.1038/495433a
Stem cells drawn from amniotic fluid show promise for tissue engineering, but it’s important to know what they can and cannot do. A new study by researchers at Rice University and Texas Children’s Hospital has shown that these stem cells can communicate with mature heart cells and form electrical couplings with each other similar to those found in heart tissue. But these electrical connections alone do not prompt amniotic cells to become cardiac cells.... Read more »
MIKE WILLIAMS. (2013) Heart cells change stem cell behavior. Rice University News. info:/
A new discovery regarding the relationship between gut bugs and disease... Read more »
Markle JG, Frank DN, Mortin-Toth S, Robertson CE, Feazel LM, Rolle-Kampczyk U, von Bergen M, McCoy KD, Macpherson AJ, & Danska JS. (2013) Sex differences in the gut microbiome drive hormone-dependent regulation of autoimmunity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6123), 1084-8. PMID: 23328391
Leavy, O. (2013) Autoimmunity: Gut bugs help protect males from diabetes. Nature Reviews Immunology, 13(3), 152-153. DOI: 10.1038/nri3409
Turnbaugh, P., Ley, R., Mahowald, M., Magrini, V., Mardis, E., & Gordon, J. (2006) An obesity-associated gut microbiome with increased capacity for energy harvest. Nature, 444(7122), 1027-131. DOI: 10.1038/nature05414
Hormones and Research for Women’s Health. Hormones are powerful molecules. They are chemical messengers. And they exert powerful effects in many different ways. Changes in hormones effect athletic ability. TheyThe post Hormones: Exercise changes estrogens and reduces risk of breast cancer appeared first on WODMasters Stiff Competition.... Read more »
Smith AJ, Phipps WR, Thomas W, Schmitz KH, & Kurzer MS. (2013) The effects of aerobic exercise on estrogen metabolism in healthy premenopausal women. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers , 22(5), 756-64. PMID: 23652373
Prefrontal Cortex Highlighted in RedIdentifying valid biomarkers for psychosis and schizophrenia is an active focus in brain research.Tyronne Cannon, Ph.D. from Yale University recently presented a summary of research on this topic at the William K. Warren Neuroscience Symposium in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Here are my notes from his presentation along with related free full-text research references.Biomarker research in psychosis is important because current treatment for psychosis with the antipsychotic drugs is limited by:discovery by serendipity without a specific molecular mechanismabsence of effect on psychosis negative symptoms (anergia, anhedonia and amotivation)poor tolerability of antipsychotic drugs with significant compliance issuesno evidence that antipsychotic drugs modify the progression of the diseaseBiomarker research in psychosis is promising because an extended prodrome period is present in childhood and adolescence. Biomarker research can be divided into markers with a progressively deviant pattern and those with a stable deviant pattern.Two studies are available to summarize current findings: The North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study, parts I and II (NAPLS I and NAPLS II). These studies have identified three biomarker candidate categories:Hormonal disruption involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axisEvent related potential abnormalities including the p300 marker and an NMDA synapse-related marker identified in a negativity mismatch taskBrain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showing a greater cortical gray matter volume decline (primarily in bilateral frontal cortex regions) in high-risk individuals who later convert to psychosisThe first two biomarkers appear to be of the stable deviant type while the gray matter deficit biomarker appears to be a progressive deviant markerAn important potential confounding issue in gray matter deficits is the role of antipsychotic drug exposure in producing gray matter changes. Research to date supports an independent contribution of psychosis progression risk with frontal gray matter reductionProgress in understanding the MRI biomarker changes in psychosis/schizophrenia require a better understanding of the mechanism of this change. At least three avenues of research for a mechanism are promising:Disruption of neuroplasticity: fetal hypoxia environments produce impairment in brain neuroplasticity possibly through disruption of the BDNF systemDisruption of brain inflammation: risk for progression to psychosis is linked to increase blood inflammation using a multiplex composite variable. This variable is associated with 35% of the variance in brain gray matter volumesHPA-Glutamate pathways: The glutamate pathway is known to be involved in psychosis with the psychotic effect produce by PCP and ketamine. It is possible glutamate disruption effects gray matter reduction through effects on the microgliaAlthough not discussed in this lecture, other promising targets for understanding psychosis mechanism and risk include: neuropsychologic deficits, brain white matter abnormalities and fMRI activation abnormalities and resting connectivity deficits.Further identification of biomarkers in psychosis will be key in designing prevention strategies and in smart drug development through understanding the mechanism of risk and progression of the disease.Readers with more interest in this topic are directed to the free full-text citations below.Image of the frontal cortex noted to be a biomarker of psychosis risk above is from a iPad screen shot from the Sun D, van Erp TG, Thompson PM, Bearden CE, Daley M, Kushan L, Hardt ME, Nuechterlein KH, Toga AW, & Cannon TD (2009). Elucidating a magnetic resonance imaging-based neuroanatomic biomarker for psychosis: classification analysis using probabilistic brain atlas and machine learning algorithms. Biological psychiatry, 66 (11), 1055-60 PMID: 19729150... Read more »
Sun D, van Erp TG, Thompson PM, Bearden CE, Daley M, Kushan L, Hardt ME, Nuechterlein KH, Toga AW, & Cannon TD. (2009) Elucidating a magnetic resonance imaging-based neuroanatomic biomarker for psychosis: classification analysis using probabilistic brain atlas and machine learning algorithms. Biological psychiatry, 66(11), 1055-60. PMID: 19729150
Seidman LJ, Giuliano AJ, Meyer EC, Addington J, Cadenhead KS, Cannon TD, McGlashan TH, Perkins DO, Tsuang MT, Walker EF.... (2010) Neuropsychology of the prodrome to psychosis in the NAPLS consortium: relationship to family history and conversion to psychosis. Archives of general psychiatry, 67(6), 578-88. PMID: 20530007
Gee DG, Karlsgodt KH, van Erp TG, Bearden CE, Lieberman MD, Belger A, Perkins DO, Olvet DM, Cornblatt BA, Constable T.... (2012) Altered age-related trajectories of amygdala-prefrontal circuitry in adolescents at clinical high risk for psychosis: a preliminary study. Schizophrenia research, 134(1), 1-9. PMID: 22056201
When you were young(er), did you also engage in personality predictions with your peers based on order in the family? For example, that the oldest of three siblings would be the bossiest and the youngest the most spoiled? Almost everyone (90% of us) have one or more siblings. And we know they play an important role in our lives. Scientists have now combined international research examining siblings’ role in children’s mental health. ... Read more »
Buist KL, Deković M, & Prinzie P. (2013) Sibling relationship quality and psychopathology of children and adolescents: a meta-analysis. Clinical psychology review, 33(1), 97-106. PMID: 23159327
The longest continuous Arctic land sediment core shows that the last time CO2 levels reached current levels, over 2.6 million years ago, North-East Russia was taken was 8°C warmer. ... Read more »
Melles, M., Brigham-Grette, J., Minyuk, P., Nowaczyk, N., Wennrich, V., DeConto, R., Anderson, P., Andreev, A., Coletti, A., Cook, T.... (2012) 2.8 Million Years of Arctic Climate Change from Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Russia. Science, 337(6092), 315-320. DOI: 10.1126/science.1222135
Julie Brigham-Grette, Martin Melles, Pavel Minyuk, Andrei Andreev, Pavel Tarasov, Robert DeConto, Sebastian Koenig, Norbert Nowaczyk, Volker Wennrich, Peter Rosén, Eeva Haltia, Tim Cook, Catalina Gebhardt, Carsten Meyer-Jacob, Jeff Snyder, Ulrike Herzsch. (2013) Pliocene Warmth, Polar Amplification, and Stepped Pleistocene Cooling Recorded in NE Arctic Russia. Science. info:/10.1126/science.1233137
Different brain areas are activated when we choose to suppress an emotion, compared to when we are instructed to inhibit an emotion, according a new study from the UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience and Ghent University. In this study, published in Brain Structure and Function (citation below), the researchers scanned the brains of healthy participants and … Read More →... Read more »
Kühn, S., Haggard, P., & Brass, M. (2013) Differences between endogenous and exogenous emotion inhibition in the human brain. Brain Structure and Function. DOI: 10.1007/s00429-013-0556-0
Do you write about peer-reviewed research in your blog? Use ResearchBlogging.org to make it easy for your readers — and others from around the world — to find your serious posts about academic research.
If you don't have a blog, you can still use our site to learn about fascinating developments in cutting-edge research from around the world.
Research Blogging is powered by SMG Technology.
To learn more, visit seedmediagroup.com.