by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room
Most research has not shown police to be any more observant than ordinary civilians—even though judges and juries often make assumptions that police witnesses are more reliable than civilian eyewitnesses. New research by Dutch researchers shows that police observers were more aware of details in a drug deal near a hotel which had been recorded […]
Are jurors more skeptical of police on the witness stand now?
“I can look into his eyes and just tell he is lying”
An ........ Read more »
Vredeveldt, A., Knol, J., & van Koppen, P. (2015) Observing offenders: Incident reports by surveillance detectives, uniformed police, and civilians. Legal and Criminological Psychology. DOI: 10.1111/lcrp.12087
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that as many as 1.7 million people in the United States experience a traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year, over 15% of which are thought to be sports-related. Despite the relatively high prevalence of these injuries, however, it seems we are just beginning to appreciate the true extent of the effects they can have on the brain. Awareness of previously unrecognized consequences to TBI and repeated TBI--along with the realization that........ Read more »
Blennow, K., Hardy, J., & Zetterberg, H. (2012) The Neuropathology and Neurobiology of Traumatic Brain Injury. Neuron, 76(5), 886-899. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2012.11.021
"Children with ADHD [attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder] have a higher prevalence of asthma than the general Quebec pediatric population."So said the findings of the study by Grizenko and colleagues  adding to quite a volume of research potentially connecting the two conditions. During this latest foray into this area of research, researchers also observed that: "Children with ADHD born prematurely and/or those whose mothers experienced stress during pregnancy have a significa........ Read more »
Grizenko N, Osmanlliu E, Fortier MÈ, & Joober R. (2015) Increased Risk of Asthma in Children with ADHD: Role of Prematurity and Maternal Stress during Pregnancy. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry , 24(2), 109-115. PMID: 26379722
Hormonal treatments administered as part of the procedures for sex reassignment have well-known and well-documented effects on the secondary sexual characteristics of the adult body, shifting a recipient’s physical appearance to that of the opposite sex. New research indicates that these hormonal treatments also alter brain chemistry.... Read more »
Kranz, G., Wadsak, W., Kaufmann, U., Savli, M., Baldinger, P., Gryglewski, G., Haeusler, D., Spies, M., Mitterhauser, M., Kasper, S.... (2015) High-Dose Testosterone Treatment Increases Serotonin Transporter Binding in Transgender People. Biological Psychiatry, 78(8), 525-533. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2014.09.010
What do you think of when I say “luxury consumption”? Probably something that requires a Robin Leach voice over, right? Now what if I ask you why these luxuries are so valued? Is it because they are of excellent quality? Aesthetically appealing? Highly exclusive? Next, consider the audience for the luxury – who is admiring who? And what does that luxury symbolize? Status? Wealth? Success?A recent paper in Evolutionary Psychology takes a look at these questions and has one of the best title........ Read more »
Hudders, L., De Backer, C., Fisher, M., & Vyncke, P. (2014) The Rival Wears Prada: Luxury Consumption as a Female Competition Strategy. Evolutionary Psychology, 12(3). DOI: 10.1177/147470491401200306
My attention was grabbed recently by the paper published by Jon Kaiser  (open-access available here) detailing the results of a 'proof-of-concept investigation' examining the use of something called KPAX002 on a small number of participants diagnosed with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS).Looking at how KPAX002 - "a combination of low-dose methylphenidate hydrochloride and mitochondrial support nutrients currently under development by K-PAX Pharmaceuticals" - impacted on fatigue symptoms and "co........ Read more »
Kaiser JD. (2015) A prospective, proof-of-concept investigation of KPAX002 in chronic fatigue syndrome. International journal of clinical and experimental medicine, 8(7), 11064-74. PMID: 26379906
It is now well-established that social class is positively related to mental health. However, researchers remain unclear about the specific processes that underlie the relation between social class and depression. In some recent research, we investigated the potential roles of parenting style and friendship in explaining the relationship between social class and mental health.... Read more »
Rubin, M., & Kelly, B. (2015) A cross-sectional investigation of parenting style and friendship as mediators of the relation between social class and mental health in a university community. International Journal for Equity in Health, 14(1), 1-11. DOI: 10.1186/s12939-015-0227-2
Parents who are more anxious and emotional can impact the amount of violent video games their children play, according to new consumer research from Iowa State University. Russell Laczniak, a professor of marketing and the John and Connie Stafford Professor in Business, says given the harmful effects of violent video games, he and his colleagues wanted to better understand how parents influence children’s behavior.... Read more »
Walker, D., Laczniak, R., Carlson, L., & Brocato, E. (2015) Parenting Orientations as Antecedents of Children's Violent Videogame Play. Journal of Consumer Affairs. DOI: 10.1111/joca.12096
A survey of Labrador Retriever owners tells us what they eat, how often they exercise, and where they sleep.A survey of over 4000 people with Labrador Retrievers provides a fascinating insight into the lifestyle of the average Lab. 68% of the dogs were pets, 6% working dogs, and of the remainder the largest group of people did not say (a quarter of overall responses). Black Labradors were the most common (49%), followed by yellow (27%) and chocolate (21%), with other colours including fox ........ Read more »
Pugh, C., Bronsvoort, B., Handel, I., Summers, K., & Clements, D. (2015) Dogslife: A cohort study of Labrador Retrievers in the UK. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2015.06.020
Glyphosate use and autism rates - should I blog about it?Well, after some deliberation I decided it was a topic worthy of an entry. There is some peer-reviewed science discussions behind it and, as per other areas of controversy on the autism research landscape, the idea that 'science is about debate' (why else does everyone keep going on about open-access and transparency) should always prevail.I'm assuming most people have heard of the organophosphonate (that's phosphonate not p........ Read more »
Faria MA. (2015) Glyphosate, neurological diseases - and the scientific method. Surgical neurology international, 132. PMID: 26322242
A new study finds that rising placebo responses may play a part in the increasingly high failure rate for clinical trials of drugs designed to control chronic pain caused by nerve damage. Surprisingly, however, the analysis of clinical trials conducted since 1990 found that the increase in placebo responses occurred only in trials conducted wholly in the U.S.; trials conducted in Europe or Asia showed no changes in placebo responses over that period.... Read more »
Tuttle, A., Tohyama, S., Ramsay, T., Kimmelman, J., Schweinhardt, P., Bennett, G., & Mogil, J. (2015) Increasing placebo responses over time in U.S. clinical trials of neuropathic pain. PAIN, 1. DOI: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000333
The findings reported by Gayle Windham and colleagues  caught my eye recently and their observations based on the examination of mid-pregnancy serum hormone and protein markers for some 2500 mothers of children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with 600,000 controls.Detailing results based on: "Second trimester levels of unconjugated estriol (uE3), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP)", researchers reported that their results........ Read more »
Windham GC, Lyall K, Anderson M, & Kharrazi M. (2015) Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk in Relation to Maternal Mid-Pregnancy Serum Hormone and Protein Markers from Prenatal Screening in California. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. PMID: 26370672
Researchers at the UNC School of Medicine found that people with anorexia nervosa have very different microbial communities residing inside their guts compared to healthy individuals and that this bacterial imbalance is associated with some of the psychological symptoms related to the eating disorder.... Read more »
Kleiman, S., Watson, H., Bulik-Sullivan, E., Huh, E., Tarantino, L., Bulik, C., & Carroll, I. (2015) The Intestinal Microbiota in Acute Anorexia Nervosa and During Renourishment. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1. DOI: 10.1097/PSY.0000000000000247
Popular girls showed more skilful leadership than others, popular boys showed less. In classrooms around the world, there's an unwritten hierarchy, with most of the kids knowing each other's standing in terms of popularity. Past psychology research has looked into the ways that children and teens attain this status, including the ability to influence their peers, either in skilful, sensitive ways or through coercion and manipulation. A new study published in the Journal of Experimental Chil........ Read more »
Lansu, T., & Cillessen, A. (2015) Associations of group level popularity with observed behavior and influence in a dyadic context. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 92-104. DOI: 10.1016/j.jecp.2015.06.016
by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room
According to new research with a large sample from all across the United States, the answer is yes! If you have read this blog for long, you know we love a good conspiracy theorist and use their idiosyncratic associations in pretrial research to plug holes in case narratives. The researchers briefly review the past literature […]
Conspiracy beliefs and the relation to emotional uncertainty
Would you get sucked in to conspiracy theories?
Think conspiracy theorists live on ........ Read more »
van Prooijen, J., & Acker, M. (2015) The Influence of Control on Belief in Conspiracy Theories: Conceptual and Applied Extensions. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 29(5), 753-761. DOI: 10.1002/acp.3161
'Can Screening with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire Detect Autism?' was the research question posed and partially answered in the paper by Sarah Hardy and colleagues  recently.Drawing on data from a very healthy sized cohort (~2800 toddlers) who were "screened with the ASQ-3 [Ages and Stages Questionnaire] and M-CHAT-R across 20 pediatric sites" in the United States, researchers suggested that there may be more to see when it comes to the use of ASQ-3 and the complicated topic of ........ Read more »
Hardy S, Haisley L, Manning C, & Fein D. (2015) Can Screening with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire Detect Autism?. Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics : JDBP, 36(7), 536-43. PMID: 26348972
The human brain does not come with an operating manual. However, a group of scientists have developed a way to convert structural brain imaging techniques into “wiring diagrams” of connections between brain regions. Three researchers from UCSB’s Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences — Michael Miller, Scott Grafton and Matt Cieslak — used the structure of neural networks to reveal the fundamental rules that govern which parts of the brain are most able to exert cognitive control ........ Read more »
"Children born after an IPI [interpregnancy interval] of <12 months or ≥72 months had a 2- to 3-fold increased ASD [autism spectrum disorder] risk compared with children born after an interval of 36 to 47 months."So said the study results published by Ousseny Zerbo and colleagues  looking at the increasingly interesting area of the autism research landscape: the interpregnancy interval (the time from the birth of an index child to the next conception/pregnancy of........ Read more »
Zerbo, O., Yoshida, C., Gunderson, E., Dorward, K., & Croen, L. (2015) Interpregnancy Interval and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders. PEDIATRICS. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2015-1099
Who doesn't enjoy waking to a pleasant smell wafting past? Unfortunately for them, the penguins in a recent study woke up not to pancakes frying nearby, but to less appetizing aromas—for example, feces on a stick. But scientists promise the experiment taught them valuable lessons about a penguin's capabilities. Besides, they let the birds go right back to sleep.
"Research into the sense of smell in birds has a bit of a dubious history," says Gregory Cunningham, a biologist at St. John F........ Read more »
Cunningham GB, & Bonadonna F. (2015) King penguins can detect two odours associated with conspecifics. The Journal of experimental biology. PMID: 26385329
As a juror in a criminal trial, you are meant to make a judgment of the defendant's guilt or innocence based on the evidence and arguments presented before you. In many trials, however, alongside the facts of the case, material and statements are allowed that don't in themselves speak to the culpability of the defendant. In a murder trial, for instance, a parent may take the stand and describe how their life has been destroyed by the loss of their child (the victim in the case). Similarly, the p........ Read more »
Matsuo, K., & Itoh, Y. (2015) Effects of Emotional Testimony and Gruesome Photographs on Mock Jurors' Decisions and Negative Emotions. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 1-17. DOI: 10.1080/13218719.2015.1032954
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