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  • January 19, 2008
  • 04:00 PM
  • 2,659 views

Blurry vision and aging: How older eyes cope

by Dave Munger in Cognitive Daily

Take a look at this slideshow (QuickTime required). You'll first see a photo in perfect focus. Then 12 more pictures will flash by, each of them blurred using Photoshop. Finally, the original photo will appear again. Is it the same as before, or slightly blurrier or sharper?



I'll give the answer after a few readers have had a chance to make a guess in the comments. Most people with normal vision will gradually adapt to blurry photos (though it might take a little longer than I'........ Read more »

Sarah Elliott. (2007) Aging and blur adaptation. Journal of Vision, 7(6), 1-9. DOI: 10.1167/7.6.8  

  • January 15, 2008
  • 04:00 PM
  • 2,567 views

Kids who won't eat: Is there any hope for changing their preferences?

by Dave Munger in Cognitive Daily

At least once or twice a week at dinnertime, our family has what we call a "harmony meal." Jim and Nora are good eaters with broad tastes, but they both (along with me and Greta) also have some foods they don't like. A harmony meal is a meal where everyone in the family likes every dish we serve. These aren't necessarily the healthiest meals (spaghetti with meat sauce and garlic bread is a favorite), but it's nice to have a meal where everyone's happy about what........ Read more »

  • January 14, 2008
  • 01:00 PM
  • 2,443 views

The unintended consequences of making a fist -- and how they depend on gender

by Dave Munger in Cognitive Daily

I was a little surprised by an offhand observation Thomas Schubert made in recent research report. He claimed that while men will commonly make a fist to celebrate a goal in a soccer match or a home run in baseball, it's unusual for women to do so.

I'm sure I've seen both female athletes and fans celebrating with fist pumps. But maybe I only noticed these cases because they were exceptions. Let's see if we can verify Schubert's observation with a little poll.

Take the ........ Read more »

  • January 10, 2008
  • 02:00 PM
  • 2,328 views

More on whether a name is destiny

by Dave Munger in Cognitive Daily

There was a lot of buzz online a couple months back when an article entitled "Moniker Maladies" made what seemed to many to be a startling claim: Baseball players strike out more often when their names start with "K"; Students with the initials "C" and "D" get worse grades than others.

Actually, this effect, known as the "name-letter effect," has been known for several years. If your name -- even your last name -- starts with T, you're more........ Read more »

Leif Nelson, & Joseph P Simmons. (2007) Moniker Maladies: When Names Sabotage Success. Psychological Science, 18(12), 1106-1112. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.02032.x  

  • January 8, 2008
  • 03:00 PM
  • 2,352 views

Some insight into how we decide how fast music should be played

by Dave Munger in Cognitive Daily

Listen to the following three short audio samples. Your job is to say whether the tempo (the rate at which the notes are played) is speeding up or slowing down. Even if it sounds like it's maintaining the same tempo, make your best guess as to whether it's speeding up or slowing down.

Clip 1:


Take the pollFree Poll by Blog Flux

Clip 2:


Take the pollFree Poll by Blog Flux

Clip 3:


Take the pollFree Poll by Blog Flux

If the results here follow the pattern found in a number of st........ Read more »

Sandra Quinn, & Roger Watt. (2006) The perception of tempo in music. Perception, 35(2), 267-280. DOI: 10.1068/p5353  

  • January 7, 2008
  • 03:00 PM
  • 2,417 views

Language doesn't influence our thoughts ... except when it does

by Dave Munger in Cognitive Daily

The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis -- stated in its strongest form -- claims that language determines thoughts: if a language doesn't have a means of expressing a particular idea, then people speaking that language can't even conceive of that idea. This strong form has long since been rejected: There are plenty of thoughts we can have without having the words to express them.

But there is also little question that the available words do have an important impact on our thoughts. If a language ........ Read more »

  • January 3, 2008
  • 01:54 PM
  • 2,568 views

Does test-taking help students learn?

by Dave Munger in Cognitive Daily

During my brief tenure as a high school teacher, one common suggestion I got from supportive colleagues was to "make your tests teaching tools." "That's often the only time you've really got your students' attention," they suggested, "so don't neglect the opportunity to teach them something."

What they meant is that you shouldn't use misleading or false information in tests as a "trick" to make sure they grasp the material: your t........ Read more »

Shana Carpenter, & Edward L DeLosh. (2006) Impoverished cue support enhances subsequent retention: Support for the elaborative retrieval explanation of the testing effect. Memory , 34(2), 268-276.

  • January 2, 2008
  • 12:25 PM
  • 2,450 views

How "gut feelings" influence memory

by Dave Munger in Cognitive Daily

[Originally posted on November 7, 2005]

What does it mean to have a gut feeling that you remember something? You see someone you recognize in a coffee shop. Do you remember her from high school? Or maybe you saw her on television. Could she be the manager of your local bank? Perhaps you don't know her at all ... but you've still got a feeling you do. What's that all about?

One theory of memory proposes that what we remember depends on our expectations. We're less likely to ........ Read more »

Stephen Goldinger, & Whitney A Hansen. (2005) Remembering by the Seat of Your Pants. Psychological Science, 16(7), 525-529. DOI: 10.1111/j.0956-7976.2005.01569.x  

  • January 2, 2008
  • 12:25 PM
  • 2,611 views

Looking down skews distance perception

by Dave Munger in Cognitive Daily

You might think humans are equally good at estimating distances no matter which direction they're looking. After all, we use the same visual tools to make those estimates -- binocular disparity (the different views we see from each eye), occlusion (whether one object is in front of or behind another), and so on. But consider the situation depicted to the right. Nora is inching her way down a steep rock column, with near-vertical drops on either side of her. If she underestimates the distanc........ Read more »

  • December 29, 2007
  • 11:23 PM
  • 2,197 views

Smells we can't detect affect judgments we make about people

by Dave Munger in Cognitive Daily

Do smells have an impact on how we judge people? Certainly if someone smells bad, we may have a negative impression of the person. But what if the smell is so subtle we don't consciously notice it? Research results have been mixed, with some studies actually reporting that we like people more when in the presence of undetectable amounts of bad-smelling stuff. How could that be?

A team led by Wen Li believes that the judges might have actually been able to detect the odor, and then accounte........ Read more »

Wen Li, Isabel Moallem, Ken Paller, & Jay Gottfried. (2007) Subliminal Smells Can Guide Social Preferences. Psychological Science, 18(12), 1044-1049. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.02023.x  

  • December 29, 2007
  • 11:23 PM
  • 2,206 views

How babies build a picture of the world

by Dave Munger in Cognitive Daily

[Originally posted on February 20, 2006]

Here's a picture of our daughter Nora at about 3 months of age. She looks like she's fairly aware of the events going on around her (arguably more aware than she sometimes appears now, at age 12). However, as our knowledge of how infants begin to perceive the world around them has increased, we've learned that the world of a three-month-old literally looks different to them than the world we perceive as adults. That's because vision, ........ Read more »

  • December 29, 2007
  • 11:23 PM
  • 2,607 views

Is it possible to be too happy?

by Dave Munger in Cognitive Daily

Happiness is associated with a lot of good things in life. People who are happier tend to get better job ratings, make more money, be more likely to get married, and be more satisfied with their marriages than people who are less happy, even years after the original happiness assessment.

People around the world rate happiness as more important than intelligence, success, and material wealth. But is it possible to be too happy? An extremely happy person might be less motivated to seek a better ........ Read more »

Shigehiro Oishi, Ed Diener, & Richard Lucas. (2007) The Optimum Level of Well-Being: Can People Be Too Happy?. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2(4), 346-360. DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-6916.2007.00048.x  

  • December 29, 2007
  • 11:23 PM
  • 2,564 views

If short-term happiness isn't always best, what about long-term?

by Dave Munger in Cognitive Daily

Earlier this week we discussed the relationship between life satisfaction and other measures of well-being, finding that for measures such as relative income, the happiest people weren't always the best-off. For relationships, however, the happiest individuals also seem to do better.

But these measures were only taken at an instant in time. What about over longer periods? The College and Beyond study questioned incoming college freshmen in 1976, and included a self-rating of "cheerful........ Read more »

Shigehiro Oishi, Ed Diener, & Richard Lucas. (2007) The Optimum Level of Well-Being: Can People Be Too Happy?. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2(4), 346-360. DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-6916.2007.00048.x  

  • December 18, 2007
  • 08:04 AM
  • 2,583 views

Want someone to remember your face? Smile.

by Dave Munger in Cognitive Daily

This past weekend, I went to two different holiday parties. While many of the people at the parties were friends, I was also introduced to a couple dozen new people -- out of town guests of the hosts, friends of friends, or people from our small town that I somehow had never met. If I run into one of these people at the coffee shop tomorrow, how likely will I be to remember that I've met them before? One possibly relevant factor is that I was a designated driver at just one of the two parti........ Read more »

  • December 13, 2007
  • 03:04 PM
  • 2,126 views

Memories, attention, and intention

by Dave Munger in Cognitive Daily

The human perceptual system is able to enforce a large array of illusions on our conscious experience. Most importantly, we hold the illusion of a complete and vivid picture of our surroundings, while in fact we selectively ignore nearly everything we see.

There's a good reason for this, of course: focusing on the task at hand generally consumes nearly all of the processing power our brains have to offer. If we need to shift our focus to another aspect of our surroundings, we can do it nea........ Read more »

Richard Marsh, Gabriel I Cook, J Thadeus Meeks, Arlo Clark-Foos, & Jason L Hicks. (2007) Memory for intention-related material presented in a to-be-ignored channel. Memory , 35(6), 1197-1204.

  • December 11, 2007
  • 03:05 PM
  • 2,534 views

We hear different music depending on how we dance to it

by Dave Munger in Cognitive Daily

Listen to this short recording:



It's a sequence that repeats every sixth beat. But when we're listening to music, we usually prefer to divide rhythm into two- or three-beat patterns (duple or triple rhythm). In this case, the sequence doesn't make it obvious which pattern is correct. A traditional duple rhythm, like a march, would accent every other beat -- the musicians play every other note a little louder. Similarly, a traditional triple rhythm, like a waltz, accents every ........ Read more »

  • December 6, 2007
  • 03:04 PM
  • 2,477 views

Understanding cocktail-party conversation: Why do we look where we do?

by Dave Munger in Cognitive Daily

When we are trying to understand what someone is saying, we rely a lot on the movement of their face. We pay attention to how their faces move, and that informs our understanding of what is said. The classic example of this is the McGurk effect, where the same sound accompanied by different facial movements gets interpreted differently.

Take a look at this short video clip (QuickTime required) of me talking, with my voice muffled by what sounds like cocktail party conversation:



Can you under........ Read more »

  • December 5, 2007
  • 12:00 PM
  • 2,844 views

Marmosets are altruistic too!

by Tom Rees in Epiphenom

A study out today has shown that marmosets, like humans, can and do act truly altruistically (see refs). Altruism is a hot topic in evolution. True altruism would, on the face of it, reduce an individual's reproductive fitness, and so you might expect that natural selection would weed out any altruists.

As the Stanford Encylopedia of Philosophy puts it:

... by behaving altruistically an animal reduces its own fitness, so should be at a selective disadvantage vis-à-vis one which behave........ Read more »

  • December 4, 2007
  • 04:04 PM
  • 2,388 views

Kids' misconceptions about numbers -- and how they fix them

by Dave Munger in Cognitive Daily

One of our readers emailed us asking if there has ever been research on whether kids' understanding of numbers -- especially large numbers -- differs from adults. Greta did a little poking around and found a fascinating study on second- and fourth-graders.

In the U.S. (and I suspect around the world), kids this age are usually taught about numbers using a number line. In first grade, they might be introduced to a line from 0 or 1 to 10. In second grade, this is typically expanded up to 100........ Read more »

  • November 28, 2007
  • 04:04 PM
  • 2,821 views

"Just smile, you'll feel better!" Will you? Really?

by Dave Munger in Cognitive Daily

Do people ever tell you to "just smile, you'll feel better"? If you're like our daughter Nora, you hear it a lot, and you get annoyed every time you hear it. Telling a teenager to smile is probably one of the best ways to ensure she won't smile for the next several hours. But the notion that "smiling will make you feel better" has actually been confirmed by research. There are several studies demonstrating that people are happier when they smile, at least in ce........ Read more »

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