You may have heard that we now live in something called a “knowledge economy.” One big implication is the premium put on the ability to ramp up your knowledge about new topics. Whatever else students are learning in school, they also need to practice study skills that can help them learn more quickly. Having a [...]... Read more »
Dunlosky, J., Rawson, K., Marsh, E., Nathan, M., & Willingham, D. (2013) Improving Students' Learning With Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions From Cognitive and Educational Psychology. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 14(1), 4-58. DOI: 10.1177/1529100612453266
In spite of the evidence to the contrary and a lack of rationality in the claim, we continue to be told that increasing the number of people with a title, such as paramedic, will result in better care.
Here is more evidence that dividing the skills among more people leads to less skilled care.
The authors begin by referring to other studies that demonstrate the high failure rate of doctors performing procedures on children.
How is that relevant to EMS? We have a low frequency of use of ........ Read more »
Mittiga, M., Geis, G., Kerrey, B., & Rinderknecht, A. (2013) The Spectrum and Frequency of Critical Procedures Performed in a Pediatric Emergency Department: Implications of a Provider-Level View. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 61(3), 263-270. DOI: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2012.06.021
Blaivas M. (2010) Inadequate needle thoracostomy rate in the prehospital setting for presumed pneumothorax: an ultrasound study. Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, 29(9), 1285-9. PMID: 20733183
Tanz RR, & Charrow J. (1993) Black clouds. Work load, sleep, and resident reputation. American journal of diseases of children (1960), 147(5), 579-84. PMID: 8488808
Meyr, A., Gonzalez, O., & Mayer, A. (2011) Quantification and Perception of On-call Podiatric Surgical Resident Workload. The Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery, 50(5), 535-536. DOI: 10.1053/j.jfas.2011.04.035
If you buy a puppy from a pet store, could you be getting more than you bargained for? It has long been thought that puppies from pet shops might have behavioural problems. A new study by Franklin D. McMillan et al investigates this by comparing puppies from pet stores to those from non-commercial breeders.The puppies that are for sale in pet shops originate from commercial breeding establishments, also known as puppy mills or puppy farms. These are large establishments that breed ........ Read more »
McMillan, F., Serpell, J., Duffy, D., Masaoud, E., & Dohoo, I. (2013) Differences in behavioral characteristics between dogs obtained as puppies from pet stores and those obtained from noncommercial breeders. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 242(10), 1359-1363. DOI: 10.2460/javma.242.10.1359
McMillan, F., Duffy, D., & Serpell, J. (2011) Mental health of dogs formerly used as ‘breeding stock’ in commercial breeding establishments. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 135(1-2), 86-94. DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2011.09.006
Westgarth, C., Reevell, K., & Barclay, R. (2012) Association between prospective owner viewing of the parents of a puppy and later referral for behavioural problems. Veterinary Record, 170(20), 517-517. DOI: 10.1136/vr.100138
epression together with pain, but not pain alone, may increase activity in the immune system and inflammation. These are the important findings of a new study just published in the journal “Pain Medicine”.... Read more »
Kim Kristiansen, M.D. (2013) Pain and Depression Linked to the Immune System. Picture of Pain Blog. info:/
We know about the problems with inaccuracy in eyewitness testimony. But here’s a study showing bias in how listeners assess the eyewitnesses themselves. Yes, you read that correctly. It isn’t about the content of the eyewitness’ testimony. Oh no. It is instead about how the eyewitness talks and how the listener assesses their social standing. [...]
Helping jurors ‘see’ what eye witnesses said they saw
When “I don’t know” improves the accuracy of eye-witness identi........ Read more »
Jules, S., & McQuiston, D. (2013) Speech style and occupational status affect assessments of eyewitness testimony. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43(4), 741-748. DOI: 10.1111/jasp.12002
Shocker alert: medicines might have more effects than those listed on the patient information leaflet.I like being surprised. I particularly like being surprised about medicines and health, and how many of the medicines which even reside in the typical household medicines cabinet* might carry the potential to do so much more than that listed on the package insert. Leaking? @ Wikipedia Take for example the recent paper I bumped into by Sommansson and colleagues** continuing their ........ Read more »
Sommansson A, Wan Saudi WS, Nylander O, & Sjöblom M. (2013) Melatonin inhibits alcohol-induced increases in duodenal mucosal permeability in rats in vivo. American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology. PMID: 23639810
In a safety-obsessed culture, why do some people throw caution to the wind and pursue sports where a wrong move often means instant death? Clues come from a series of interviews conducted with a group of 15 extreme sport participants (aged 30 to 70; 10 men) about their relationship with fear, including BASE jumpers (who launch themselves off high buildings), big wave surfers and waterfall kayakers.
Eric Brymer and Robert Schweitzer transcribed the interviews and looked for emerging themes. Co........ Read more »
Brymer, E., & Schweitzer, R. (2012) Extreme sports are good for your health: A phenomenological understanding of fear and anxiety in extreme sport. Journal of Health Psychology, 18(4), 477-487. DOI: 10.1177/1359105312446770
New research demonstrates that male soldiers' faces may predict their military rank and how many children they ultimately father... Read more »
Carré J. M, & McCormick C. M. (2008) In your face: facial metrics predict aggressive behaviour in the laboratory and in varsity and professional hockey players. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 275(1651), 2651-2656. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2008.0873
Wong E. M., Ormiston M. E., & Haselhuhn M. P. (2011) A Face Only an Investor Could Love: CEOs' Facial Structure Predicts Their Firms' Financial Performance. Psychological Science, 22(12), 1478-1483. DOI: 10.1177/0956797611418838
Tsujimura H., & Banissy M. J. (2013) Human face structure correlates with professional baseball performance: insights from professional Japanese baseball players. Biology Letters, 9(3), 20130140-20130140. DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2013.0140
Stirrat Michael, Stulp Gert, & Pollet Thomas V. (2012) Male facial width is associated with death by contact violence: narrow-faced males are more likely to die from contact violence. Evolution and Human Behavior, 33(5), 551-556. DOI: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2012.02.002
Stirrat M., & Perrett D. I. (2012) Face Structure Predicts Cooperation: Men With Wider Faces Are More Generous to Their In-Group When Out-Group Competition Is Salient. Psychological Science, 23(7), 718-722. DOI: 10.1177/0956797611435133
When I was younger, I can remember being split into teams in
gym class and different tables in art class and having one question: how many
girls and how many boys are in my group? Depending on the activity, it seemed important
to know this so you could assess your chances for success. More boys on your
team, and you might be more likely to win dodgeball. More girls at your art
table, and you might paint a better mural.
An adult might have told me that was silly - how many boys
vs. girls........ Read more »
West, T., Heilman, M., Gullett, L., Moss-Racusin, C., & Magee, J. (2012) Building blocks of bias: Gender composition predicts male and female group members’ evaluations of each other and the group. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(5), 1209-1212. DOI: 10.1016/j.jesp.2012.04.012
Prescriptions of antipsychotic (aka neuroleptic) drugs in North American children and adolescents have been rising rapidly in recent years. But why? Gabrielle Carlson of Stony Brook Children’s Hospital offers her thoughts in a brief paper: The Dramatic Rise in Neuroleptic Use In Children: Why Do We Do It and What Does It Buy Us? Carlson [...]... Read more »
Carlson GA. (2013) The dramatic rise in neuroleptic use in children: why do we do it and what does it buy us? Theories from inpatient data 1988-2010. Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology, 23(3), 144-7. PMID: 23607407
If cartoonists ever pause in their sketching to ponder human evolution, they must feel grateful to the forces that shaped our fear expression. All it takes is a pair of extra-wide eyes to show that a character is freaking out. There may be a point to this expression beyond making artists' lives easier: widening our eyes expands our peripheral vision, and might even help other people spot the cause of our alarm.
"Our lab is interested in the evolutionary origins of emotional expressions," say........ Read more »
Lee, D., Susskind, J., & Anderson, A. (2013) Social Transmission of the Sensory Benefits of Eye Widening in Fear Expressions. Psychological Science. DOI: 10.1177/0956797612464500
by Persuasion Strategies in Persuasive Litigator
By Dr. Ken Broda-Bahm: Over the weekend I gave a presentation at a law firm retreat in Palm Springs. The presentation drew from a recent mock trial in an insurance dispute and the deliberation video clips I was playing could've been seen as a parade of mistakes: jurors ignoring instructions, flagrantly applying their own experience and knowledge, and framing the dispute within their own terms instead of the frame provided by the presenting attorneys. After about an hour of this, one attorney in ........ Read more »
Leah Sprain and John Gastil. (2013) What Does It Mean to Deliberate? An Interpretive Account of Jurors' Expressed Deliberative Rules and Premises. Communication Quarterly, 61(2), 151-171. info:/
It struck me recently that one of the key differences between economists and neuroscientists studying decision-making is their interest in dynamics. Economists seem more interested in explaining how behavior operates (or should operate) on average whereas neuroscientists would like to explain trial-to-trial variability. Decisions are rarely made just once in a lifetime, but are instead made repeatedly. [...]... Read more »
Hampton, A., Bossaerts, P., & O'Doherty, J. (2008) Neural correlates of mentalizing-related computations during strategic interactions in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(18), 6741-6746. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0711099105
Zhu, L., Walsh, D., & Hsu, M. (2012) Neuroeconomic Measures of Social Decision-Making Across the Lifespan. Frontiers in Neuroscience. DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2012.00128
by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room
As trial consultants we are always alert to the possibility of new persuasion strategies. Often we find new perspectives in disciplines other than our own. Intriguing and powerful conclusions can stem from different sorts of thinking processes, based on different bodies of research. Recently, we ran across the work of Arthur (Skip) Lupia whose presentations contain [...]
Simple Jury Persuasion: Avoid ‘oops you did it again’ errors
Simple Jury Persuasion: The more thi........ Read more »
Lupia, Arthur. (2012) The Trouble with Voters and Those Who Try to Fix Them. SSRN Electronic Journal. info:/
Kind of a morbid question, but apparently one that is on many people’s minds. Suicide by drowning is definitely not impossible, although it is not the easiest method. Due to the body’s natural tendency to come up for air, drowning attempts are most likely to succeed in deep waters.... Read more »
Like Charlie Bucket looking through the sweet shop window at the delicious chocolates produced by the workforce of a certain Mr Willy Wonka (the candyman no less), I am always quite interested in the goings-on at the IMFAR autism research conference. The candyman can... @ Wikipedia This year (2013) proved to be a bit of a vintage, as once again the great and the good presented their Wonka bars of autism research; thus hinting at the direction of future autism research and what y........ Read more »
Höglund Carlsson, L., Norrelgen, F., Kjellmer, L., Westerlund, J., Gillberg, C., & Fernell, E. (2013) Coexisting Disorders and Problems in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. The Scientific World Journal, 1-6. DOI: 10.1155/2013/213979
In 2004, in Silicon Valley, Google posted a huge billboard ad featuring a mathematical problem. The answer led to a web address with yet another puzzle to crack. People who successfully followed this intellectual treasure hunt ended up being invited in for a job interview.This is an extreme example of a recruitment principle spelled out in a new article by psychologists in Belgium. They say that distinctive recruitment procedures are the secret to attracting more and better job appli........ Read more »
Cromheecke, S., Van Hoye, G., & Lievens, F. (2013) Changing things up in recruitment: Effects of a ‘strange’ recruitment medium on applicant pool quantity and quality. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. DOI: 10.1111/joop.12018
Last week, my father sent me a link to the 100 top-ranked specialties in the sciences and social sciences. The Web of Knowledge report considered 10 broad areas of natural and social science, and for each one listed 10 research fronts that they consider as the key fields to watch in 2013 and are “hot [...]... Read more »
Rendell L, Boyd R, Cownden D, Enquist M, Eriksson K, Feldman MW, Fogarty L, Ghirlanda S, Lillicrap T, & Laland KN. (2010) Why copy others? Insights from the social learning strategies tournament. Science, 328(5975), 208-213. PMID: 20378813
Accountability is all the rage these days, whether it’s with regard to schools, hospitals, government agencies, or the local Geico car insurance branch. But not all accountability is the same, and a thought-provoking new study led by Penn’s Philip Tetlock examines how political ideology and trust can influence support for various accountability systems. The study [...]... Read more »
Tetlock, P., Vieider, F., Patil, S., & Grant, A. (2013) Accountability and ideology: When left looks right and right looks left. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 122(1), 22-35. DOI: 10.1016/j.obhdp.2013.03.007
Discussions on self-injurious behaviour (SIB) or auto-aggression are not normally for the faint-hearted.Indeed, as I intimated on a previous post on SIB and autism, when such behaviours are witnessed in children and young adults - even older adults, one does wonder what the effects might be not only on the person themselves but also on a parent or a sibling as they watch their own flesh and blood banging their head on a wall or pulling their hair out or trying to gouge their eyes out. I can't pu........ Read more »
Sisk RA, Motley WW 3rd, Yang MB, & West CE. (2013) Surgical outcomes following repair of traumatic retinal detachments in cognitively impaired adolescents with self-injurious behavior. Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus, 50(1), 20-6. PMID: 23061560
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