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  • April 20, 2017
  • 05:19 AM
  • 119 views

DHM attenuates obesity-induced slow-twitch-fiber decrease via FLCN/FNIP1/AMPK pathway

by Joana Guedes in BHD Research Blog

Obesity is often associated with decreases in the proportion of skeletal muscle slow-twitch fibers and insulin sensitivity. Slow-twitch fibers are rich in mitochondria and utilize fatty acid oxidative phosphorylation for energy production. In their new study, Zhou et al. (2017) explore the role of the FLCN/FNIP1/AMPK signalling pathway in obesity-induced reductions in slow-twitch fibers and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle using high-fat-diet-induced (HFD) obese mice, ob/ob mutant mice, an........ Read more »

  • March 31, 2017
  • 12:10 PM
  • 248 views

Giving the underserved the care they deserve

by Aurametrix team in Aurametrix Blog

Nobody likes strong smells coming from other human beings. It's just that social convention: you are nice, if you smell nice, and you are a monster  - like Shakespeare's Caliban - if you smell bad. ​Caliban, often depicted as a Golumn-like creature, is one of the first cases of fish odor syndrome described in the literature. No amount of soap and water would help him to wash the smell away, as his body is constantly producing a pungent small molecule trimethylamine. ... Read more »

Guo Y, Hwang LD, Li J, Eades J, Yu CW, Mansfield C, Burdick-Will A, Chang X, Chen Y, Duke FF.... (2017) Genetic analysis of impaired trimethylamine metabolism using whole exome sequencing. BMC medical genetics, 18(1), 11. PMID: 28196478  

Callewaert C, Lambert J, & Van de Wiele T. (2016) Towards a bacterial treatment for armpit malodour. Experimental dermatology. PMID: 27892611  

  • March 24, 2017
  • 07:58 AM
  • 186 views

Ammonium regulates mTOR signalling

by Joana Guedes in BHD Research Blog

mTORC1 and mTORC2 are two distinct mammalian TOR (target of rapamycin) complexes that regulate cell growth and metabolism. In cancer, genetic alterations lead to activation of mTOR signalling impacting tumour metabolism. Upregulated glutaminolysis is part of the metabolic reaction occurring in cancer that liberates high levels of ammonium, a toxic waste product. Although the importance of glutamine as a tumour nutrient is recognized, little is known about the potential effects of ammonium produc........ Read more »

  • September 6, 2016
  • 11:17 AM
  • 487 views

Keeping the Weight Off

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Weight loss and maintenance of weight loss is difficult if not nearly impossible for most people.A registry of individuals who have lost 30 pounds or more and maintained their weight loss over a year exists in the U.S. This research effort is known as the National Weight Control Registry. It currently has over 10,000.I was looking at some of the published research results from this study. A paper published in 2012 used cluster analysis to identify sub-types of individuals with successful long-te........ Read more »

  • September 2, 2016
  • 11:53 AM
  • 528 views

Obesity Surgery: VA Outcome Study

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Weight loss (bariatric) surgery is likely to become increasingly important to address the obesity epidemic in the U.S. and other nations.There are several types of surgical techniques used for bariatric surgery.One of the most invasive is the Rous-en-Y gastric bypass (RYG) operation. This operation involves bisection of the small intestine and reattachment of the upper section to a position lower down the small intestine. This provides for a shorter distance for food to be absorbed.Less invasive........ Read more »

Maciejewski ML, Arterburn DE, Van Scoyoc L, Smith VA, Yancy WS Jr, Weidenbacher HJ, Livingston EH, & Olsen MK. (2016) Bariatric Surgery and Long-term Durability of Weight Loss. JAMA surgery. PMID: 27579793  

  • September 2, 2016
  • 07:28 AM
  • 478 views

Mitochondrial function during muscle fiber type transition by a miR‐499/Fnip1/AMPK circuit

by Joana Guedes in BHD Research Blog

Contractile fiber type and mitochondrial function are two key factors of skeletal muscle function. However, the exact mechanism for coupling the two remains unknown. The genes encoding type I myosins Myh7/Myh7b regulate muscle fiber type switching by encoding their intronic miRNAs, miR-208b and miR-499. In a new study, Liu et al., 2016 use transgenic mice to show that miR-499 directly targets the gene encoding folliculin‐interacting protein‐1 (Fnip1), which negatively regulates AMPK. AMPK ........ Read more »

  • August 18, 2016
  • 08:00 AM
  • 619 views

Sorry, I Don't Drink

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Koalas don’t drink a lot of water, but the spinifex hopping mouse and kangaroo rat put him to shame. They never drink. What water they need they get from the seeds they eat and from the fact that they conserve water amazingly well – including the water that they produce during metabolism. Adult mayflies don’t drink either – they don’t have working mouthparts! Of course, some only live a few minutes as adults, so it may not be that big a deal.... Read more »

  • July 13, 2016
  • 10:57 AM
  • 672 views

The Genetic Architecture of Complex Disease

by Daniel Koboldt in Massgenomics

It’s no secret that while genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated thousands of genetic loci in human phenotypes, the variants uncovered collectively explain only a fraction of the observed variance between individuals. The reasons for this “missing heritability” are a subject of vigorous debate in the scientific community. One possible explanation is that rare (low-frequency) variants […]... Read more »

Fuchsberger C, Flannick J, Teslovich TM, Mahajan A, Agarwala V, Gaulton KJ, Ma C, Fontanillas P, Moutsianas L, McCarthy DJ.... (2016) The genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes. Nature. PMID: 27398621  

  • June 17, 2016
  • 05:49 AM
  • 649 views

FLCN activates mTORC1 by maintaining lysosomal leucine level

by Joana Guedes in BHD Research Blog

The intracellular amino acid pool within the lysosome has been shown to activate the mTORC1 signaling pathway (Zoncu et al., 2011; Jewell et al., 2013). However, how the sequester of the signaling molecules within the lysosome occurs remains poorly understood. New research from Wu et al. (2016) shows that the suppression of FLCN, a tumour suppressor gene associated with the Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome, controls mTORC1 activity by modulating the lysosomal leucine levels. FLCN exerts this new f........ Read more »

  • June 12, 2016
  • 10:35 PM
  • 849 views

Seeing Through the Skin

by Aurametrix team in Olfactics and Diagnostics

​Human skin emits light (albeit the glow is extremely weak) and a wide variety of small molecules that may be sometimes "sniffed" by dogs or even other humans. These chemicals tell a story about our health and wellness, things we eat and drink, touch and breathe. Mosquitoes use such emissions to assess our "attractiveness" from indicators such as Indoles (unpleasantly smelling but healthy "inner soil" biomarker) or carbon dioxide (amount of which correlates with the size of the person........ Read more »

Gao W, Emaminejad S, Nyein HY, Challa S, Chen K, Peck A, Fahad HM, Ota H, Shiraki H, Kiriya D.... (2016) Fully integrated wearable sensor arrays for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis. Nature, 529(7587), 509-14. PMID: 26819044  

Yokota T, Zalar P, Kaltenbrunner M, Jinno H, Matsuhisa N, Kitanosako H, Tachibana Y, Yukita W, Koizumi M, & Someya T. (2016) Ultraflexible organic photonic skin. Science advances, 2(4). PMID: 27152354  

  • May 3, 2016
  • 12:00 PM
  • 438 views

"The Biggest Loser": Long-term Effects

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Yesterday I posted a link to a New York Times article that posted a summary outcome in fourteen participants in TV's "The Biggest Loser" show.The study found a trend towards post-show weight gain for 13/14 of the participants.Four participants actually gained so much weight that after six years they weighed more than before participating in the show.A key finding from the study was this weight gain could be explained by a metabolic response resulting in up to 800 calories less burned daily ........ Read more »

Fothergill, E., Guo, J., Howard, L., Kerns, J., Knuth, N., Brychta, R., Chen, K., Skarulis, M., Walter, M., Walter, P.... (2016) Persistent metabolic adaptation 6 years after “The Biggest Loser” competition. Obesity. DOI: 10.1002/oby.21538  

  • March 16, 2016
  • 09:59 AM
  • 799 views

An open letter to all science lovers who want to defend science ... please don't.

by EE Giorgi in CHIMERAS

Last week I had an animated discussion on Facebook over an older post in which I describe some literature I dug out on possible (underline “possible”!) correlations with autism. True, my post is highly incomplete, but it was meant as a discussion starter to point at things that scientists have been looking at in an attempt to unravel what feels like a rise in autism. Is autism the new childhood plague of our modern society or has it always been around and we just became more aware of it? And........ Read more »

Kushak RI, Buie TM, Murray KF, Newburg DS, Chen C, Nestoridi E, & Winter HS. (2016) Evaluation of Intestinal Function in Children with Autism and Gastrointestinal Symptoms. Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition. PMID: 26913756  

Heijtz, R., Wang, S., Anuar, F., Qian, Y., Bjorkholm, B., Samuelsson, A., Hibberd, M., Forssberg, H., & Pettersson, S. (2011) Normal gut microbiota modulates brain development and behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(7), 3047-3052. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1010529108  

Mulle, J., Sharp, W., & Cubells, J. (2013) The Gut Microbiome: A New Frontier in Autism Research. Current Psychiatry Reports, 15(2). DOI: 10.1007/s11920-012-0337-0  

  • November 18, 2015
  • 07:04 AM
  • 1,400 views

Give Thanks For The Cranberry

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Here comes Thanksgiving! The cranberry is an amazing fruit on its own for several reasons. Its cultivation and botany are unusual, as is its seed dispersal mechanism and structure. However, a major push has been on to understand the medicinal uses of the cranberry. Much debate is taking place as to the usefulness of cranberry compounds, anthocyanidins and polyphenols, in the prevention of urinary tract infections. Cranberry is even having some success in type II diabetes and as an anti-viral age........ Read more »

Ruel G, Lapointe A, Pomerleau S, Couture P, Lemieux S, Lamarche B, & Couillard C. (2013) Evidence that cranberry juice may improve augmentation index in overweight men. Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.), 33(1), 41-9. PMID: 23351409  

Shidfar F, Heydari I, Hajimiresmaiel SJ, Hosseini S, Shidfar S, & Amiri F. (2012) The effects of cranberry juice on serum glucose, apoB, apoA-I, Lp(a), and Paraoxonase-1 activity in type 2 diabetic male patients. Journal of research in medical sciences : the official journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 17(4), 355-60. PMID: 23267397  

  • September 16, 2015
  • 01:00 AM
  • 640 views

Journal club summary on Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity

by Bridges Lab in Bridges Lab Commentaries

Rationale
It has been suggested that low carbohydrate diets lead to a greater fat loss than diets of reduced fat content. The rationale behind this claim is that insulin promotes lipid synthesis and storage in adipose tissue, therefore a reduction in dietary carbohydrate would reduce circulating insulin concentrations and discourage fat storage. However, the first law of thermodynamics clearly states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed; therefore, all calories are equal,........ Read more »

  • September 7, 2015
  • 08:23 AM
  • 565 views

Exercise Did Not Improve Mitochondrial Content in Healthy Brains

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Eric A.F. Herbst MSc Ph.D. student Human Health and Nutritional Sciences University of Guelph Guelph, ON Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Many neurological diseases result in declines in … Continue reading →
The post Exercise Did Not Improve Mitochondrial Content in Healthy Brains appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Studies with Interviews and News.
... Read more »

Eric A.F. Herbst MSc Ph.D. student. (2015) Exercise Did Not Improve Mitochondrial Content in Healthy Brains. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • August 21, 2015
  • 01:00 AM
  • 469 views

The Effects of Glucocorticoids on Adipose Tissue

by Dave Bridges in Bridges Lab Posts

The Effects of Glucocorticoids on Adipose Tissue... Read more »

Hochberg, I., Harvey, I., Tran, Q., Stephenson, E., Barkan, A., Saltiel, A., Chandler, W., & Bridges, D. (2015) Gene expression changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue due to Cushing's disease. Journal of Molecular Endocrinology, 55(2), 81-94. DOI: 10.1530/JME-15-0119  

  • June 30, 2015
  • 01:00 AM
  • 414 views

New Paper on Effects of Acromegaly on Adipose Tissue

by Dave Bridges in Bridges Lab Posts

New Paper on Effects of Acromegaly on Adipose Tissue... Read more »

Hochberg, I., Tran, Q., Barkan, A., Saltiel, A., Chandler, W., & Bridges, D. (2015) Gene Expression Signature in Adipose Tissue of Acromegaly Patients. PLOS ONE, 10(6). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0129359  

  • June 11, 2015
  • 08:00 AM
  • 933 views

The catch-22 of recording from identified cell populations

by Michael Patterson in ...And You Will Know Me By The Trail of Papers

Recording from individual cells in genetically identified populations is the hottest technique in systems neuroscience right now (I am, of course, totally biased since that's what I'm trying to do). To record from identified populations, you first choose a mouse line that expresses Cre driven by a cell-specific marker like D1R. Then you transduce those cells with floxed ChR2 or GCaMP so you can ... Read more »

Betley, J., Xu, S., Cao, Z., Gong, R., Magnus, C., Yu, Y., & Sternson, S. (2015) Neurons for hunger and thirst transmit a negative-valence teaching signal. Nature, 521(7551), 180-185. DOI: 10.1038/nature14416  

Jennings, J., Ung, R., Resendez, S., Stamatakis, A., Taylor, J., Huang, J., Veleta, K., Kantak, P., Aita, M., Shilling-Scrivo, K.... (2015) Visualizing Hypothalamic Network Dynamics for Appetitive and Consummatory Behaviors. Cell, 160(3), 516-527. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2014.12.026  

  • May 10, 2015
  • 07:01 PM
  • 877 views

Making Digestion Health Easier to Digest

by Aurametrix team in Irritable Bowel Blog

From balloons inserted into stomach or colon to the dreaded colonoscopy, digestive diagnostic procedures are not fun. Tracking diet and symptoms, too, is tedious and frustrating - unless, like a mouse, you can be isolated in a chamber linked to analyzers that automatically measure everything for you.... Read more »

  • April 26, 2015
  • 01:47 PM
  • 692 views

Genetic Basis of Transcriptome Diversity in Drosophila melanogaster

by Dave Bridges in Metabolism Preprints

This preprint from Trudy Mackay‘s group at NC State uses a recombinant inbred series of flies known as the Drosophila Genome Reference Panel (DGRP) to evaluate how genetic variation affects transcription.  To do this they extracted RNA from whole flies, pooled from males and females of each of the 192 recombinant inbred fly lines.  They fit…... Read more »

Wen Huang, Mary Anna Carbone, Michael Magwire, Jason Peiffer, Richard Lyman, Eric Stone, Robert Anholt, & Trudy Mackay. (2015) Genetic Basis of Transcriptome Diversity in Drosophila melanogaster. bioRxiv. info:/10.1101/018325

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