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  • May 25, 2017
  • 11:07 PM
  • 52 views

Gaslighting in the Medical Literature

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

Have you felt that your sense of reality has been challenged lately? That the word “truth” has no meaning any more? Does the existence of alternative facts make you question your own sanity? In modern usage, the term gaslighting refers to “a form of psychological abuse in which false information is presented to the victim with the intent of making him/her doubt his/her own memory and perception”.Gaslighting is a form of manipulation that seeks to sow seeds of doubt in a targeted ........ Read more »

Barton R, & Whitehead JA. (1969) The gas-light phenomenon. Lancet (London, England), 1(7608), 1258-60. PMID: 4182427  

Kutcher SP. (1982) The gaslight syndrome. Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie, 27(3), 224-7. PMID: 7093877  

Lund CA, & Gardiner AQ. (1977) The gaslight phenomenon--an institutional variant. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science, 533-4. PMID: 588872  

Smith CG, & Sinanan K. (1972) The "gaslight phenomenon" reappears. A modification of the Ganser syndrome. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science, 120(559), 685-6. PMID: 5043219  

  • May 15, 2017
  • 12:29 AM
  • 8 views

Looking for Empathy in All the Wrong Places: Bizarre Cases of Factitious Disorder

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

art by Zdzisław Beksiński Factitious disorder is a rare psychiatric condition where an individual deliberately induces or fabricates an ailment because of a desire to fulfill the role of a sick person. This differs from garden variety malingering, where an individual feigns illness for secondary gain (drug seeking, financial gain, avoidance of work, etc.). The primary goal in factitious disorder is to garner attention and sympathy from caregivers and medical staff.The psychiatric handbook DSM-........ Read more »

Porter, T., & Feldman, M. (2011) A Case of Factitious Pedophilia. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 56(5), 1380-1382. DOI: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2011.01804.x  

Thompson CR, & Beckson M. (2004) A case of factitious homicidal ideation. The journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 32(3), 277-81. PMID: 15515916  

  • March 27, 2017
  • 12:07 PM
  • 301 views

Theory of Mind in Brain Development

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Theory of Mind (ToM) is a concept describing the ability to understand what another person is thinking or feeling.Today in my neuroscience medicine news review I ran across a novel, interesting and important research study targeting brain development in ToM.Normally developing children develop ToM around 4 years of age. In the study published in Nature Communications, a research team at the Max Planck Institute in Germany studied white matter development in 3 to 4 year old children.Using a serie........ Read more »

  • November 15, 2016
  • 11:38 AM
  • 526 views

Celebrex Boosts Antidepressant Response

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

I ran into an interesting article at ScienceDaily providing data on a small sample size study of the anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib (Celebrex) in depression.Access the ScienceDaily report on this study by clicking HERE.This study focused on subjects with bipolar depression. All subjects were in a depressed phase and received the antidepressant drug escitalopram (Lexapro).Although only 55 subjects participated in this study, the results were significant and large. Adding Celebrex to escitalopra........ Read more »

  • October 30, 2016
  • 08:54 PM
  • 500 views

Haunting Delusions of Identity

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

Bugs Bunny in Hyde and Hare (1955)Delusional misidentification syndromes have fascinated filmmakers and psychiatrists alike. Afflicted individuals suffer under the false belief that persons or things around them have changed their identities or appearance. Classification schemes have varied, but a general outline includes:Capgras delusion Fregoli delusion Intermetamorphosis Subjective doublesfrom Table 1 (Ellis et al., 1994). Classification and description of the four principal delusional miside........ Read more »

Courbon, P., & Tusques, J. (1994) Illusions d'intermetamorphose et de charme. History of Psychiatry, 5(17), 139-146. DOI: 10.1177/0957154X9400501711  

Ellis, H., Luauté, J., & Retterstøl, N. (1994) Delusional Misidentification Syndromes. Psychopathology, 27(3-5), 117-120. DOI: 10.1159/000284856  

Malliaras DE, Kossovitsa YT, Christodoulou GN. (1978) Organic contributors to the intermetamorphosis syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 135(8), 985-987. DOI: 10.1176/ajp.135.8.985  

Silva, A., Leong, G., & Shaner, A. (1991) The Syndrome of Intermetamorphosis. Psychopathology, 24(3), 158-165. DOI: 10.1159/000284709  

Silva, A., & Leong, G. (1994) Delusions of Psychological Change of the Self. Psychopathology, 27(6), 285-290. DOI: 10.1159/000284885  

  • October 14, 2016
  • 11:50 AM
  • 500 views

Pathways to Substance Use and Abuse

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Neuroscience medicine clinicians encounter patients every day who have both a mental and substance use disorder.This co-occurrence, or comorbidity, complicates diagnosis, treatment and outcome.The exact mechanism for this comorbidity issue is unclear.A recent study out of Washington University in St. Louis and King's College London provides some insight into this comorbidity issue.They examined participants in the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE). These subjects provided genet........ Read more »

Carey CE, Agrawal A, Bucholz KK, Hartz SM, Lynskey MT, Nelson EC, Bierut LJ, & Bogdan R. (2016) Associations between Polygenic Risk for Psychiatric Disorders and Substance Involvement. Frontiers in genetics, 149. PMID: 27574527  

  • October 3, 2016
  • 10:56 AM
  • 562 views

Robin Williams and Lewy Body Disease

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

In a post last week, I highlighted a recent study examining clinical issues in the diagnosis of Lewy body dementia (LBD).This study examined differentiating clinical and neuropsychological factors between LBD, Alzheimer's dementia and Parkinson's disease.You can access this post by clicking HERE.This topic received significant attention following the description of comedian Robin Williams' last years by his wife in the journal Neurology.Robin Williams suffered from LBD and like many, his diagnos........ Read more »

Williams SS. (2016) The terrorist inside my husband's brain. Neurology, 87(13), 1308-1311. info:/

  • August 30, 2016
  • 11:59 AM
  • 596 views

Dyslexia Improvement in Medication Trial

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Dyslexia or developmental reading disorder is a common learning disorder affecting about 5% of the school age population.Treatment of dyslexia is difficult and typically is focused on special education classes and reading exercises.Medication treatment for dyslexia is nearly unheard of as no FDA-approved drug is available for the condition.However, a recent randomized clinical drug trial found evidence to support the potential use of atomoxetine for dyslexia.Atomoxetine is a drug approved for at........ Read more »

  • August 9, 2016
  • 11:16 AM
  • 632 views

Genetics of Depression: Secondary Markers

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

In my previous post, I highlighted a recent study of genetics and major depression from the 23andMe database.I have had a chance to review this manuscript in more detail. One of the findings of interest involved secondary marker or secondary phenotypes.Fifteen genetic loci were identified in this 23andMe sample using a discovery and replication data set.Secondary phenotypes with the highest correlation with the 17 SNPs identified in the study included (effect) :Taking a selective serotonin reupt........ Read more »

  • July 27, 2016
  • 01:33 PM
  • 584 views

Posttraumatic stress disorder a greater risk in rich countries

by Eva Alisic in Trauma Recovery

One would think that people with few friends and living in poverty are more at risk for PTSD than those with a strong support network and many resources. And that's true.

However, it is a different story when you look at the country-, rather than the individual level. Countries with more resources, such as the USA and the Netherlands, have higher levels of PTSD than countries with fewer resources (e.g. Colombia, South Africa).
... Read more »

  • June 6, 2016
  • 11:50 AM
  • 615 views

Neuroscience Medicine: The Time Has Come

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

As basic and clinical sciences advance, it becomes increasing important to understand the role of multidisciplinary efforts in scientific progress. In this post, I propose rethinking and renaming the medically-related neuroscience disciplines into a new specialty called neuroscience medicine.Basic neuroscience research has evolved and emerged as a powerful discipline due to the increasing use of multidisciplinary research teams. Basic neuroscience involves collaboration of various scientifi........ Read more »

  • June 4, 2016
  • 07:40 PM
  • 551 views

Trauma research must be Open Access

by Eva Alisic in Trauma Recovery

We recently examined how global and how open the literature on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is.

Not so global, and not so open.

Only 13% of the publications of 2012 regarded samples in low- or middle-income countries and 58% were behind a paywall.

It worries me that practicing psychologists can’t access the latest research on therapy effectiveness...
... Read more »

  • June 2, 2016
  • 12:11 PM
  • 709 views

The Future of Neuroscience Education

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

I spent the majority of my career in medical education and saw significant changes over time.One encouraging sign was the emergence of neuroscience as a respected and beneficial academic discipline.Now, a new perspective on Neuroscience Training for the 21st Center has been written by Huda Akil and colleagues. This perspective is recently published in the journal Neuron with free access to the full-text manuscript.Here are my notes from reading this perspective. Readers can access the free full-........ Read more »

Akil, H., Balice-Gordon, R., Cardozo, D., Koroshetz, W., Posey Norris, S., Sherer, T., Sherman, S., & Thiels, E. (2016) Neuroscience Training for the 21st Century. Neuron, 90(5), 917-926. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2016.05.030  

  • May 27, 2016
  • 10:24 AM
  • 771 views

Prenatal Smoking and Offspring Schizophrenia

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

The topic prevention of brain disorders  is commonly neglected. This is despite increasing evidence for evidence-based support for prevention opportunities.This issue is highlighted in a recent study out of Finland that examined prenatal nicotine metabolite levels and offspring diagnosis of schizophrenia.In this study, Solja Niemela and the Finnish research team examined all live births in Finland between 1983 and 1998.What makes this study powerful is the measurement of maternal serum coti........ Read more »

Niemelä, S., Sourander, A., Surcel, H., Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, S., McKeague, I., Cheslack-Postava, K., & Brown, A. (2016) Prenatal Nicotine Exposure and Risk of Schizophrenia Among Offspring in a National Birth Cohort. American Journal of Psychiatry. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2016.15060800  

Talati A, Bao Y, Kaufman J, Shen L, Schaefer CA, & Brown AS. (2013) Maternal smoking during pregnancy and bipolar disorder in offspring. The American journal of psychiatry, 170(10), 1178-85. PMID: 24084820  

  • May 23, 2016
  • 10:39 AM
  • 684 views

Emotional Processing: A Key to Depression Treatment?

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

In my last post I reported on the use of machine learning to aid in predicting response to depression treatment.Another interesting depression prediction tool is being investigated in a trial in England funded by the Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust.This trial uses a visual facial recognition tool. The hypothesis is that early antidepressant action can be identified by changes in facial emotional recognition.This trial stems from work by Catherine Harmer Ph.D. from the University of Oxford. He........ Read more »

  • May 20, 2016
  • 10:50 AM
  • 664 views

Predicting Depression Treatment Response: Machine Learning

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Treatment of depression remains primarily an uninformed clinical process. Several effective drug and psychotherapy interventions are available. However, there is no reliable way to determine which treatment is likely to be the most effective for an individual patient.A recent study that used machine learning techniques to address this problem has been published.A research team from Yale University used clinical data from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) tr........ Read more »

Chekroud AM, Zotti RJ, Shehzad Z, Gueorguieva R, Johnson MK, Trivedi MH, Cannon TD, Krystal JH, & Corlett PR. (2016) Cross-trial prediction of treatment outcome in depression: a machine learning approach. The lancet. Psychiatry, 3(3), 243-50. PMID: 26803397  

  • May 5, 2016
  • 02:26 PM
  • 649 views

Ketamine Metabolite Linked to Rapid Antidepressant Effect

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Model of crytalized ketamine moleculeStandard antidepressant therapies typically take two weeks or more to begin to act.Ketamine is an anesthetic drug recently demonstrated to have a rapid antidepressant effect.The mechanism for this effect is unknown. A recent mouse study of ketamine and metabolites of ketamine show some potentially groundbreaking insight for the treatment of depression.This study found these significant findings:Ketamine like most organic compounds is made of boty an R an........ Read more »

Zanos, P., Moaddel, R., Morris, P., Georgiou, P., Fischell, J., Elmer, G., Alkondon, M., Yuan, P., Pribut, H., Singh, N.... (2016) NMDAR inhibition-independent antidepressant actions of ketamine metabolites. Nature. DOI: 10.1038/nature17998  

  • March 20, 2016
  • 08:06 AM
  • 924 views

A Detached Sense of Self Associated with Altered Neural Responses to Mirror Touch

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

Our bodily sense of self contributes to our personal feelings of awareness as a conscious being. How we see our bodies and move through space and feel touched by loved ones are integral parts of our identity. What happens when this sense of self breaks down? One form of dissolution is Depersonalization Disorder (DPD).1 Individuals with DPD feel estranged or disconnected from themselves, as if their bodies belong to someone else, and “they” are merely a detached observer. Or the self feel........ Read more »

  • March 9, 2016
  • 10:55 AM
  • 1,069 views

Look Who's Talking

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Would you believe that the anatomy of your ribs is why you can sing and an ape can’t, or that one of the same reasons you can speak is the same reason you are likely to choke to death on a hotdog? Biology is weird, and you can tell it I said so.... Read more »

  • March 8, 2016
  • 04:15 PM
  • 843 views

What do you do when a patient wakes up during CPR?

by Rogue Medic in Rogue Medic

The return of consciousness without the return of a pulse is still rare, but may be more common with our increased focus on high quality chest compressions. There is still no evidence that interrupting chest compressions, for anything other than defibrillation, improves outcomes.

Is this due to the consistency of the machine? Maybe. Maybe not. We do not have enough evidence to draw that conclusion.

Is this growing population really growing? Maybe. Maybe not. We do not have enough evidence ........ Read more »

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